Form of Government: Republic
Area: 475 650 sq km
Population: 24 053 727 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 50.57 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 13° - 2° N; long. 9° - 16° E
Capital: Yaoundé (capital) 1 801 000 inhab. (2010);
Currency: CFA franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.556 (rank: 151)
President: Paul Biya (RDPC), since 6 November 1982, last re-elected 7 October 2018
Prime Minister: Joseph Ngute (RDPC), since 4 January 2019
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 30 September 2013: CPDM (Cameroon People's Democratic Movement), 148; SDF (Social Democratic Front), 18; others, 14
Internet: www.statistics-cameroon.org (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, CEMAC, Commonwealth, OIC, UN, WTO

Cameroon

Cameroun, Cameroon, République du Cameroun, Republic of Cameroon
Useful information

International license plate code CAM
International dialling code 00237
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cm

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Yaoundé 23.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Yaoundé 24/22
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Yaoundé 4/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Yaoundé 1542
Days of rainfall (annual average) Yaoundé 130

Politics and current affairs

President P. Biya was re-elected on 7 October 2018. There have been violent protests in the English-speaking areas in the west since 2017, which have been sharply suppressed by the government.

Geography.
Cameroon is bordered by Nigeria to the north and west, Chad to the north-east, the Central African Republic to the east, and by Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea to the south. Cameroon faces out to the Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Guinea) to the west and Lake Chad to the north.
Mount Cameroon (4095 m) rises proud on the flat coastal strip, and the coastal strip then leads into the Adamawa plateau that slopes down from north to south. The country is crossed by the River Sanaga and the River Nyong to the south and the River Benue to the north. The climate is equatorial, humid along the coast, and tropical inland with savannah areas to the north. The border with Nigeria was altered in 2002-03 by the International Court of Justice in The Hague, which assigned the Bakassi peninsula and roughly 1000 km2 of land to the north, in the Lake Chad area, to Cameroon.

Government


Formerly a German protectorate, what we know now as present-day Cameroon was divided in 1920 between France and the United Kingdom, originally under a League of Nations mandate and then as a United Nations Trusteeship.
The Republic of Cameroon came into being on 1 October 1961 with the reunification of the French part (which had already achieved independence on 1 January 1960) and the southern part of the British territory. The northern section of the British territory was unified with Nigeria.
In 1972, modifications to the original federal organization gave the country a unified structure. Despite the opening up of the political system to multi-party elections (in 1990), the original party of the single party state (CPDM) has maintained a tight grip over the leadership of the country.
In the English-speaking west, there are active secessionist movements; rebel groups in the Bakassi peninsula have been responsible for carrying out armed attacks and kidnappings; in the north, incursions take place by Islamic militants from Nigeria. The president, who enjoys ample executive powers, is elected by direct suffrage for a seven-year term. The Parliament consists of the National Assembly (180 members elected by direct suffrage) and the Senate (70 members elected by the municipal councils and 30 elected by the president), each of which has a five-year term.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force2.8%2015
Army88%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides5.9per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel17.3per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Douala2 125 000inhab.2010
Yaoundé1 801 000inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Bantu tribes are main inhabitants of the south of the country; Islamized Sudanese groups are spread throughout the centre and centre-north, while small groups of pygmies live in the equatorial forests.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate35.82017
Death rate9.82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other35.8%1983
Fang20%1983


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic38.3%2010
Protestant31.4%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
English (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years42.1%2018
15-29 years27.6%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)175.16index2016
Balance of trade-2 034.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population10 820 815units2018
Active population, Females46.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females53.7%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses3 831 000M LCU2018
Revenues3 317 000M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture46.3%2018
industry14.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15.7%2017
industry27.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 250.7BN LCU2018
International reserves3 459.3M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The principal export crops are cocoa, cotton, bananas, coffee (from the Nkongsamba region and the centre-south), and palm oil. Pineapples, tomatoes and peanuts are also produced. Subsistence agriculture (cassava, bananas, maize, taro, sorghum, yams, beans, rice, potatoes and sweet potatoes) is more widely practiced in inland regions. As a whole, the country has achieved self-sufficiency in terms of food. The forests supply several valuable kinds of wood (ebony, okoumé, mahogany and iroko). The main products of the transformation industry are palm oil and rubber (Dizangué plantation near Edea). The large numbers and variety of animals raised helps to satisfy the demand for food.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.39%2015
forests39.8%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total4 061.5561000 t2017
maize2 246.2411000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava5 798.9091000 t2017
potatoes3151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages61.7131000 t2017
chillies and peppers65.4411000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry413.0721000 t2017
beans, green4.6311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4801000 t2017
sesame seed651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits3 110.2961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts5.221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa295.0281000 t2017
coffee30.9841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 288.0391000 t2017
tobacco6.7321000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton242.8931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.0991000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apricots0.9491000 t2017
figs0.0911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.1331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.1691000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes0.0631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados71.2351000 t2017
bananas1 245.7321000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 243.3731000 ha2017
millet73.0391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava398.4851000 ha2017
potatoes20.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.5561000 ha2017
chillies and peppers28.5871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry310.651000 ha2017
beans, green0.7881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4301000 ha2017
sesame seed501000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit170.1691000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.7461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa729.0491000 ha2017
coffee98.1931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane136.2891000 ha2017
tobacco4.1991000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton226.1081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2441000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apricots0.1871000 ha2017
figs0.0341000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.1241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados16.9821000 ha2017
bananas75.4561000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber54 927t2017
timber14 329 6882017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 798.5451000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes5 798.5451000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 933.3141000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep3 468.8151000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5 439.0891000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses40.1031000 heads2017
asses and mules40.1031000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds51 1001000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.31000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs15.651000 t2017
hides and skins21.471000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs35 767t2017
freshwater fishes30 315t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.

Crude oil is extracted in the Logone-Birni basin and from offshore reserves at Bibundi, Kombo, Boa, Bakassi, Kole, Bavo, Mokoko, Abana and Moudi, and a refinery operates in Limbe.
A 1070 km oil pipeline carries crude oil extracted in Chad to the Cameroonian port of Kribi, which is being expanded. Natural gas, extracted at Douala, Sanaga, Kribi and Moudi, feeds the Kribi power station and the liquefaction terminal off the city. Bauxite deposits are found around Bamileke and Martap, iron ore is found around Kribi, cassiterite around Garoua and Banyo, gold around Bétaré-Oya and Batouri, diamonds around Limokoali and Mobilong. Most of the electricity produced is hydro-electric with dams and power plants at Edea, Song Loulou, Lagdo and Lom Pangar (under construction).
The aluminium industry located in Edea is of importance as are chemicals (in Bonabéri), petrochemicals (in Limbe), the mechanical sector and textile plants (at Doula, Maroua and Garoua) as well tanneries at Ngaoundéré. A hub of technological innovation has been developed in the Buéa area. Other industrial activities have to do with the pressing of oleaginous seeds (at Kaélé), cotton shelling (at Maroua), rubber, cocoa and tobacco processing (at Yaoundé), sugar production (at Mbandjock and Nkoteng), paper mills at Edéa and cement works (at Douala, Figuil and Yaoundé). The country’s main trading partners are the EU member states. The CFA franc is pegged to the Euro at a fixed rate of exchange.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas545M m³2017
oil, crude3 441.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay221000 t2015
kyanite0.21000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite1.81000 t2014
kaolin221000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds2.21000 ct2015
gold1 800kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro4 565M kWh2016
- thermal3 527.82M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8171000 kW2016
- hydro7321000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation8 107.82M kWh2016
total installed capacity1 5581000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium601000 t2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol9821000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap32.71000 t2009
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics0.02M m²2005
cotton fabrics - m8.9M m2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley7801000 t2014
coconut oil0.91000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 755M units2005
cigarettes - t0.21000 t2009
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 6001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production5 904.4M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels42.929% of goods exports2017
food products21.837% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain928M US$2006
Italy870M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
France773M US$2007
Nigeria735M US$2006
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20183 817M US$ -
20173 233M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 851M US$ -
20175 105M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures845M US$2017
Number of arrivals994 000units2016
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Communications


The main rail line is the Trans Cameroon railway which links Douala with Ngaoundéré. The River Benue is an important waterway for trade with Nigeria.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown10 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2361000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.751per 1000 pop.2017
Computers11.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.7years2016
Graduates67 066units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level97 984units2017
Teachers, secondary level114 601units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.3per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2011
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV3.7% of adults2017
HIV, total6%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums76units2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking23.04%2016
Access to electricity61.401%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear13.1%2004
food, non-alcoholic beverages44.1%2004
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