Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 181 035 sq km
Population: 16 788 191 inhab. (census 2019)
Density: 92.74 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 10° N; long. 103° - 108° E
Capital: Phnom Penh=Phnum Pénh (capital) 2 189 460 inhab. (2019);
Currency: riel (100 sen)
Human development index: 0.594 (rank: 144)
Sovereign: King Norodom Sihamoni, since 14 October 2004
Prime Minister: Hun Sen (KPK), since 26 November 1998
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 29 July 2018: KPK (Cambodian People’s Party, nationalist), 125
Internet: www.nis.gov.kh (National Institute of Statistics)
Member of ASEAN, UN, WTO

Cambodia

Kâmpŭchéa, Preăhréachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchéa
Useful information

International license plate code K
International dialling code 00855
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .kh

GMT  +7
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Phnom Penh 27.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Phnom Penh 26/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Phnom Penh 6/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Phnom Penh 1402
Days of rainfall (annual average) Phnom Penh 121

Geography.
Cambodia is bordered by Thailand and Laos to the north, Vietnam to the east and south-east, and by Thailand again to the west. To the west lies the Gulf of Thailand. Its territory extends over a vast alluvial plain, crossed by the River Mekong. The climate is heavily influenced by the monsoons, with very heavy rainfall. Border disputes with Thailand have caused repeated bouts of armed conflict, which intensified in 2011 and followed by a ceasefire agreement.

Government


Formerly an autonomous kingdom within French Indochina, Cambodia gained its independence on 20 July 1954, at the end of the war fought in Indochina between France and Vietnam. The neutral politics of King Norodom Sihanouk came to an end in 1970 with a coup d’état led by General Lon Nol, supported by the USA. The country then became involved in the Vietnam War. On 17 April 1975, the most extreme faction of the Cambodian Communists, the Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, installed a ruthlessly repressive regime, carrying out full-scale genocide. In 1979, the country was invaded by Vietnamese troops who drove out the Khmer Rouge (supported by China and Thailand). The peace process began in 1989, with the withdrawal of Vietnamese troops and the return of thousands of refugees. The constitution of 1993 restored the monarchy (abolished in 1970) and created a government of national unity ruled by two co-prime ministers: Hun Sen (KPK, former Communist Party) and Prince Norodom Ranariddh (FUNCINPEC). In 1997, Hun Sen dismissed Ranariddh, sparking off civil war in the north of the country. It ended in 1998 with the surrender of the last bands of the Khmer Rouge, leaving Pol Pot dead. Hun Sen’s Cambodia People’s Party has increased its control of the country, effectively creating a single-party regime. The monarchy is not hereditary; the king is elected by a Royal Throne Council made up of the highest authorities in the land. Parliament comprises the National Assembly (125 members elected by direct suffrage), with a mandate of five years, and the Senate (62 members, of which 58 are elected by indirect suffrage, two are appointed by the king and two by the National Assembly), with a mandate of six years; the government must have the approval of two-thirds of the Assembly.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.2%2015
Army60.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides6.5per 100 000 pop.2012
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
1including 3000 km2 of inland waters2final data, excluding 1 235 980 migrants working abroad
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Phnom Penh=Phnum Pénh2 189 460inhab.2019
Siĕm Réab225 607inhab.2019
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate22.022019
Death rate5.9922019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Khmer85.2%2000
Chinese6.4%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist97.1%2019
Muslim2$%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
French
Khmer (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years30$%2020
15-29 years26.9%2020


TOP

Economy


The most important economic sectors, textiles and tourism, were sharply hit by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-21. The main product is rice, while fishing in inland waters is the basic source of nourishment for the population. Underground resources (bauxite, precious stones, gold and iron ore) have only been partially explored and exploited. The textile segment is highly developed, mainly for export; there are also vehicle assembly plants, chemical plants, tyre production plants (Ta Khmau), paper mills (at Chhlong) and cement factories (at Chakrey). A hydroelectric power plant operates near the River Se San. Rubber, soya, maize, sesame, fish and clothing are all exported. Using Chinese investments, a special economic zone was created in Sihanoukville (textile, mechanical and timber industries). Before the pandemic, soaring tourism, especially among visitors coming from China, had led to an increase in building projects on the southern coast.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)185.54index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)120.6index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 749 587units2019
Active population, Females49.1%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.3%2019
Unemployment rate, Females53.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses17 419 639M LCU2020
Revenues21 465 458M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture54.7%2019
industry18.8%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.026%2019
industry36.398%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation15 026.914BN LCU2020
International reserves21 328.475M US$2020
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land23.034%2018
forests47.472%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total12 296.2861000 t2019
maize1 410.2861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava13 737.9211000 t2019
roots and tubers, total13 823.031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry90.81000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.2781000 t2019
groundnuts21.1611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits1601000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts69.3691000 t2019
copra11$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.3841000 t2019
pepper2.5061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane660.9191000 t2019
tobacco14.7561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.2391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total389.3761000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits71.1811000 t2019
grapefruits3.321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas143.121000 t2019
mangoes72.5271000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize270.7011000 ha2019
rice3 001.3131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava504.941000 ha2019
sweet potatoes8.0631000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry68.9771000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.4851000 ha2019
groundnuts17.3891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit14.8521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts13.0041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.481000 ha2019
pepper0.3771000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane29.7031000 ha2019
tobacco7.7411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts6.2981000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits12.3441000 ha2019
grapefruits0.3241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas30.6081000 ha2019
mangoes5.3671000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber174 700t2019
timber7 562 4002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 848.8461000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes3 454.4841000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes605.6381000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 102.4271000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total30.8641000 heads2019
horses30.8641000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds22 2961000 heads2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.0251000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs22.721000 t2019
hides and skins14.6971000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs46 500t2019
freshwater fishes813 665t2019
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt10$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 0001000 t2011
sand and gravel - t23 1301000 t2018
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro4 030M kWh2019
- thermal3 154.64M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 3301000 kW2019
- thermal8471000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation7 924.57M kWh2018
total installed capacity2 256.51000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate fertilizers0.51000 t2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley7001000 t2018
coconut oil8.0461000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco14.2t2006
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 9001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production4 179.999M US$2020
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures90.601% of goods exports2019
food products4.586% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 599M US$2007
Germany345M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Thailand1 357M US$2007
China883M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202017 069M US$ -
201914 825M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202019 173M US$ -
201920 279M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 161M US$2019
Number of arrivals6 611 000units2019
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown2 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 429.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers11.184per 1000 pop.2019
Computers4$per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.5years2008
Graduates48 772units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 147 313units2018
Students, secondary level949 195units2010
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians0.19per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2019
HIV, total1.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.118% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking31.2%2019
Access to electricity93$%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3$%2017
education1$%2017
TOP