Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 181 035 sq km
Population: 16 069 921 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 88.77 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 10° N; long. 103° - 108° E
Capital: Phnom Penh=Phnum Pénh (capital) 1 242 992 inhab. (2008); Phnom Penh=Phnum Pénh 1 416 582 inhab. (2008), urban agglomeration
Currency: riel (100 sen)
Human development index: 0.582 (rank: 146)
Sovereign: King Norodom Sihamoni, since 14 October 2004
Prime Minister: Hun Sen (KPK), since 26 November 1998
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 29 July 2018: KPK (Cambodian People’s Party, nationalist), 125
Internet: www.nis.gov.kh (National Institute of Statistics)
Member of ASEAN, UN, WTO

Cambodia

Kâmpŭchéa, Preăhréachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchéa
Useful information

International license plate code K
International dialling code 00855
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .kh

GMT  +7
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Phnom Penh 27.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Phnom Penh 26/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Phnom Penh 6/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Phnom Penh 1402
Days of rainfall (annual average) Phnom Penh 121

Politics and current affairs

Ahead of the elections on 29 July 2018, which the governing party (CPP) won by a wide margin, leader of the main opposition party, Kem Sokha, was arrested on 2 September 2017 and the party subsequently dissolved (16 November).

Geography.
Cambodia is bordered by Thailand and Laos to the north, Vietnam to the east and south-east, and by Thailand again to the west. To the west lies the Gulf of Thailand. Its territory extends over a vast alluvial plain, crossed by the River Mekong. The climate is heavily influenced by the monsoons, with very heavy rainfall. Border disputes with Thailand have caused repeated bouts of armed conflict, which intensified in 2011 and followed by a ceasefire agreement.

Government


Formerly an autonomous kingdom within French Indochina, Cambodia gained its independence on 20 July 1954, at the end of the war fought in Indochina between France and Vietnam. The neutral politics of King Norodom Sihanouk came to an end in 1970 with a coup d’état led by General Lon Nol, supported by the USA. The country then became involved in the Vietnam War. On 17 April 1975, the most extreme faction of the Cambodian Communists, the Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, installed a ruthlessly repressive regime, carrying out full-scale genocide. In 1979, the country was invaded by Vietnamese troops who drove out the Khmer Rouge (supported by China and Thailand). The peace process began in 1989, with the withdrawal of Vietnamese troops and the return of thousands of refugees. The constitution of 1993 restored the monarchy (abolished in 1970) and created a government of national unity ruled by two co-prime ministers: Hun Sen (KPK, former Communist Party) and Prince Norodom Ranariddh (FUNCINPEC). In 1997, Hun Sen dismissed Ranariddh, sparking off civil war in the north of the country. It ended in 1998 with the surrender of the last bands of the Khmer Rouge, leaving Pol Pot dead. Hun Sen’s Cambodia People’s Party has increased its control of the country, effectively creating a single-party regime. The monarchy is not hereditary; the king is elected by a Royal Throne Council made up of the highest authorities in the land. Parliament comprises the National Assembly (125 members elected by direct suffrage), with a mandate of five years, and the Senate (62 members, of which 58 are elected by indirect suffrage, two are appointed by the king and two by the National Assembly), with a mandate of six years; the government must have the approval of two-thirds of the Assembly.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.2%2015
Army60.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides6.5per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
1including 3 000 km2 of inland waters
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Phnom Penh=Phnum Pénh1 242 992inhab.2008
Siĕm Réab168 662inhab.2008
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Phnom Penh=Phnum Pénh1 416 582inhab.2008
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate22.92017
Death rate62017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Khmer85.2%2000
Chinese6.4%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buddhist97.9%2013
other2.1%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
French
Khmer (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years30.8%2018
15-29 years28.1%2018


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Economy


The main product is rice, while fishing in inland waters is the basic source of nourishment for the population.
Underground resources (bauxite, precious stones, gold and iron ore) have only been partially explored and exploited.
The textile segment is highly developed, mainly for export; there are also vehicle assembly plants, chemical plants, tyre production plants (Ta Khmau), paper mills (at Chhlong) and cement factories (at Chakrey). A hydroelectric power plant operates near the River Se San. Rubber, soya, maize, sesame, fish and clothing are all exported. Using Chinese investments, a special economic zone was created in Sihanoukville (textile, mechanical and timber industries). Tourism has sharply risen (5.6 million arrivals in 2017), especially among visitors coming from China, which has led to an increase in building projects on the southern coast.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)185.54index2016
Balance of trade-4 720M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population9 065 942units2018
Active population, Females48.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate1.1%2018
Unemployment rate, Females43.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses12 109 464.6M LCU2017
Revenues16 706 611.6M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture30.4%2018
industry26.9%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture25%2017
industry32.7%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation9 992.4BN LCU2018
International reserves13 885.7M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land22.41%2015
forests53.57%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total11 1001000 t2017
maize7501000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava10 577.8121000 t2017
roots and tubers, total10 658.8161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry83.1671000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.2811000 t2017
groundnuts201000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits1601000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts69.5571000 t2017
copra111000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.3651000 t2017
pepper2.5341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane686.5051000 t2017
tobacco16.2311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.2411000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2751000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total361.7931000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits71.0681000 t2017
grapefruits3.2911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas137.661000 t2017
mangoes68.6711000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize159.4371000 ha2017
rice2 950.8521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava392.0741000 ha2017
sweet potatoes7.5031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry66.8711000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.4131000 ha2017
groundnuts181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit14.7321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts13.1721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee0.461000 ha2017
pepper0.3881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane30.6221000 ha2017
tobacco8.3331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.1811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2631000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts6.2981000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits12.0981000 ha2017
grapefruits0.321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas30.4781000 ha2017
mangoes4.8741000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber15 844t2017
timber7 822 2972017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 962.2111000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes3 617.7091000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes655.4981000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 926.1371000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total30.4861000 heads2017
horses30.4861000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds22 6541000 heads2017
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.031000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs23.51000 t2017
hides and skins17.881000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs42 570t2017
freshwater fishes721 993t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt781000 t2008
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 0001000 t2011
sand and gravel - t10 0551000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 593M kWh2016
- thermal2 550M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro9301000 kW2016
- thermal7311000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation5 210.3M kWh2016
total installed capacity1 697.31000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
phosphate fertilizers0.51000 t2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4801000 t2014
coconut oil11.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco14.2t2006
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 6001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production4 017.3M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures93.153% of goods exports2016
food products4.592% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 599M US$2007
Germany345M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Thailand1 357M US$2007
China883M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201814 350M US$ -
201712 089M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201819 070M US$ -
201715 495M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures919M US$2017
Number of arrivals5 602 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown2 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 305.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers8.100per 1000 pop.2017
Computers4per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.5years2008
Graduates48 772units2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level50 684units2017
Teachers, secondary level30 258units2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.8per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2017
HIV, total1.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking17.69%2016
Access to electricity89.07%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3%2017
education1%2017
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