Form of Government: Republic
Area: 27 834 sq km
Population: 11 495 438 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 413.00 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 2° - 4° S; long. 29° - 31° E
Capital: Gitega (capital) 41 944 inhab. (2008);
Currency: Burundi franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.417 (rank: 185)
President and head of government: Pierre Nkurunziza (CNDD-FDD), since 26 August 2005, last re-elected on 21 July 2015
Internet: www.isteebu.bi (Institut de Statistiques)
Member of AU, COMESA, EAC, UN, WTO

Burundi

Burundi, République du Burundi, Republika y'u Burundi
Useful information

International license plate code BU
International dialling code 00257
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .bi

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Bujumbura 22.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Bujumbura 23/22
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Bujumbura 9/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Bujumbura 833
Days of rainfall (annual average) Bujumbura 90

Politics and current affairs

In an environment of violence and intimidation, on 17 May 2018, a referendum approved an amendment to the constitution that strengthened the powers of the president and the government, calling into question the balance established after the civil war.

Geography.
It is bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and by the Dem. Rep. of the Congo to the west. The country is made up of highlands sloping eastwards; south-western borders overlook Lake Tanganyika. The main river is the River Ruvubu (basin of the River Nile). The temperature range is small, and rainfall is moderate.

Government


Part of the German protectorate of Ruanda-Urundi (1884), Burundi was made a Belgian mandate territory in 1919, and the kingdom of Burundi achieved independence on 1 July 1962. Four years later King Ntare V was deposed by General Michel Micombero, a minority Tutsi leader, who proclaimed the country a republic on 29 November 1966 and gave rise to a government under the control of the Union for National Progress (UPRONA). The following years saw the Tutsi military forces consolidate their power over the majority Hutus, suppressing any attempt at rebellion (the years 1971-1975 saw more than 100 000 victims, the majority of which were Hutu civilians, with thousands more killed in 1988).
Only in the early 1990s did President Pierre Buyoya initiate a cautious process of liberalization with the first multi-party elections (1993) won by the Front for Democracy (FRODEBU), the main Hutu party. However, the assassination of the Hutu President Melchior Ndadaye (21 October 1993) a few months later started a new wave of bloodshed which further intensified after the killing of new Hutu President Cyprien Ntaryamira, assassinated on 6 April 1994.
A first step towards reconciliation was taken with the writing of a constitution by the Transitional National Assembly in 1998. Following this, the rebel forces set up a political party (CNDD-FDD) winning both the presidential and legislative elections since 2005.
In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, amended in 2018 to strengthen the powers of the President and the government, ethnic quotas have been established that call for 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi in institutional roles. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for seven years. The Parliament is made up of two chambers; the National Assembly (100 elected members and others appointed to guarantee ethnic and women representation) and the Senate (36 members elected by indirect vote, 3 chosen based on their ethnicity and up to 4 former presidents) with a five-year term.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Army100%2017
Military expenditure2% of GDP2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides6per 100 000 pop.2016
Police personnel149.5per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bujumbura709 640inhab.2017
Gitega41 944inhab.2008
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate41.82017
Death rate10.52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hutu80%2015
Tutsi19%2015


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic61.4%2008
Protestant21.4%2008


Languages
DESCRIPTION
French (official)
Kirundi (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years45.5%2018
15-29 years26.6%2018


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Economy


The country relies heavily on international aid and is sensitive to the price of imported goods, which can cause high inflation and lowering the population’s purchasing power. The main products are coffee and tea, which account for most of its exports. Locally-consumed produce includes bananas, cassava, sweet potatoes, dry beans and maize. There is a significant amount of livestock farming and fishing on Lake Tanganyika. Tantalum, gold, niobium, tungsten and tin are the main mineral resources. There are small textile plants, shoe and cigarette factories, sugar and cement plants and breweries.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)107.79index2016
Balance of trade- 649.9M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 867 642units2018
Active population, Females52.3%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.9%2014
Unemployment rate, Females40.6%2014
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 293 000M LCU2018
Revenues1 048 000M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture92%2018
industry2.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture37.5%2017
industry16.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation350.2BN LCU2018
International reserves68.13M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land60.36%2015
forests10.75%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total380.7761000 t2017
maize2401000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2 293.5951000 t2017
potatoes150.5271000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry379.8611000 t2017
peas, dry4.3231000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 t2017
groundnuts8.7451000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits86.5111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee141000 t2017
tea54.211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane219.4351000 t2017
tobacco1.4281000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.0751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 483.7761000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1 238.7381000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1801000 ha2017
millet9.3071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava326.5311000 ha2017
potatoes21.2051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry253.7241000 ha2017
peas, dry1.5921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 ha2017
groundnuts17.6271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit8.751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee16.51000 ha2017
tea13.8361000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane2.9381000 ha2017
tobacco2.161000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.8121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas185.8121000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 624 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle526.6031000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes526.6031000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs4761000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep252.1711000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 828.9561000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 3001000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.7471000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.3031000 t2014
eggs2.81000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes20 399t2017
total catch20 399t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peat81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
columbite-tantalite12t2015
rare earths11000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold500kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro269M kWh2016
renewable electricity generation92.434%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro511000 kW2016
- thermal91000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation304M kWh2016
total installed capacity681000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
paints0.7341000 t2018
soap15.11000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - sq m2.9M m²2006
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2301000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes710M units2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production17.8M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production559.7M US$2013
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products79.892% of goods exports2017
manufactures12.194% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Switzerland74.2M US$2010
United Kingdom36.8M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Belgium100.1M US$2010
China100.1M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018161M US$ -
2017172M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018811M US$ -
2017755M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures24M US$2017
Number of arrivals299 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 000 000km flown1998
Civil aviation, passengers carried121000 units2000
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.360per 1000 pop.2017
Computers9per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.3years2017
Graduates17 638units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level42 854units2017
Teachers, secondary level23 729units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.8per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.05per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.1% of adults2017
HIV, total13%2002
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.12% of GDP2011
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking0.85%2016
Access to electricity9.3%2017
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