Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 8 510 346 sq km
Population: 211 755 692 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 24.88 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 5° N - 34° S; long. 74° - 35° W
Capital: Brasília (capital) 3 055 149 inhab. (2020); Brasília 4 469 761 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: real (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.765 (rank: 84)
President and head of government: Jair Bolsonaro (Alliance for Brazil), elected 28 October 2018, in office since 1 January 2019
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 7 October 2018: PT ( Workers’ Party, democratic socialist), 56; PSL (Social Liberal Party, nationalist right), 52; PP (Progressistas, liberal conservative), 37; PSD (Social Democratic Party, liberal conservative), 34; MDB (Brazilian Democratic Movement, centrist), 34; PL (Liberal Party, conservative), 33; PSB (Brazilian Socialist Party), 32; PRB (Brazilian Republican Party, conservative), 30; PSDB (Brazilian Social Democracy Party), 29; DEM (Democrats, liberal conservative), 29; PDT (Democratic Labour Party, social democratic), 28; others, 119
Internet: www.ibge.gov.br (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, PROSUR, UN, WTO

Brazil

Brasil, República Federativa do Brasil
Useful information

International license plate code BR
International dialling code 0055
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .br

GMT Brasília -3; Rio de Janeiro -3; Manaus -4; Porto Acre -5; Fernando de Noronha Archipelago -2
DST Brasília -2; Rio de Janeiro -2; Manaus not applied; Porto Acre not applied; Fernando de Noronha Archipelago not applied
DST duration (start-end) mid October (Sunday 19)-mid February

Annual average temperature (°C) Brasília 21.3; Belém 26.7; Manaus 27.5; Porto Alegre 20.1; Rio de Janeiro 23.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Brasília 22/19; Belém 26.5/27; Manaus 27/27.5; Porto Alegre 25/15.5; Rio de Janeiro 26/21.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Brasília 8.5/4.5; Belém 7.5/6; Manaus 6/4; Porto Alegre 4.5/8; Rio de Janeiro 5.5/5.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Brasília 1554; Belém 2880; Manaus 2285; Porto Alegre 1330; Rio de Janeiro 1170
Days of rainfall (annual average) Brasília 128; Belém 240; Manaus 157; Porto Alegre 112; Rio de Janeiro 124

Politics and current affairs

The terrible management of the COVID-19 pandemic, which continued to impact the country gravely in 2021, reflected negatively on President J. Bolsonaro, whose popularity had grown at the end of 2020 due to policies supporting the poor. The quashed convictions of “Lula” I. Da Silva, confirmed by the Supreme Court on 15 April 2021, also weigh heavily on the country’s political life; the former president could therefore run again in the 2022 elections.

Geography.
Brazil is bordered by almost all of the states of South America (starting in the north and working anti-clockwise: French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay). The Atlantic Ocean lies off its east coast and it has 7491 km of coastline. The country is formed by a high plateau that slopes down towards the plains of the River Paraná and the River Paraguay in the west and the River Amazon in the north. The edges of the eastern plateau (the Brazilian Highlands or Brazilian Plateau) are mountainous (here the mountain ranges are known as serras), with some of Brazil’s highest peaks (Pico da Bandeira, 2897 m and Pico das Agulhas Negras, 2787 m). In the centre of the plateau, the Mato Grosso Plateau slopes down towards the Amazonian basin, a vast basin measuring 5 million km², covered with rainforest. In the north stand the Guiana Highlands, culminating in Pico da Neblina (3014 m). The largest river is the River Amazon which flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a vast estuary. It has a tropical climate. The Fernando de Noronha archipelago (state of Pernambuco), the Rocas Atoll (state of Rio Grande do Norte), the Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (in the state of Pernambuco), the island of Trindade and the uninhabited islands of Martim Vaz (in the state of Espírito Santo) also belong to Brazil.

Government


Brazil became independent from Portugal on 7 September 1822 (as the “Empire of Brazil”), and became a republic in 1889, following a military takeover. In the 1891 Constitution it adopted presidential rule and became a federal republic. In 1964, after ten years of rule by left-wing populist parties, a military coup installed a dictatorship which lasted until 1988, when power was restored to civilians. After that, political power remained firmly in the hands of the conservatives until the elections of 2002 when a broad centre-left coalition established itself, led by Inácio “Lula” Da Silva until 2010, who was succeeded by Dilma Rousseff until 2016, then dismissed with the accusation of falsifying the budget. The 2018 elections, on the other hand, were won by the populist right led by Jair Bolsonaro. With an electoral system that encourages party fragmentation, majorities in Parliament are difficult to achieve. Corruption results. According to the 1988 Constitution and the referendum of 1993, Brazil is a presidential federal republic. The country is composed of 26 states plus the federal district of Brasilia, the capital. Each state has its own administrative, legislative and judicial institutions. The President of the Republic, who is also the head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage. The right to vote is acquired at the age of 16. Legislative power lies in the hands of Parliament (the National Congress), comprising a Chamber of Deputies (513 members elected for four years) and the Senate (81 members elected for eight years, one-third and two-thirds of whom are alternatively renewed every four years). There is also a Council of the Republic which is summoned in times of national emergency.


Defence.
In addition to the armed forces, each state has its own paramilitary corps, placed under the control of the army. Military service, which is compulsory, lasts for 12 months.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on European Law. The highest law court is the Supreme Federal Tribunal, made of 11 judges appointed by the President. There is no life-sentence.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force20.2%2015
Army59.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides29.5per 100 000 pop.2016
Police personnel262.4per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
São Paulo12 325 232inhab.2020
Rio de Janeiro6 747 815inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
São Paulo21 893 842inhab.2020
Rio de Janeiro12 705 036inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Despite economic growth, the distribution of income is extremely unequal and large sections of the population still live in poverty. Indigenous communities have been reduced to a few hundred thousand, concentrated along the River Amazon, in the Mato Grosso, in the states of Pará, Roraima and Maranhão and in the Indigenous Park of the Xingu (on the central plateau). In 2004 Brazil adopted the ILO Convention 169 regarding the rights of indigenous peoples, which guarantees protection for indigenous tribes, their culture and traditions. There are many blacks, especially in the northern coastal regions, between Salvador and Recife. There are large numbers of Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards and Germans.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate13.72019
Death rate6.32019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white47.7%2010
mulatto43.1%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic50$%2019
Protestant31$%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Amerindian languages
Portuguese (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years21.1%2020
15-29 years23.8%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The COVID-19 pandemic affected an economy that had already been sluggish for several years due to falling oil prices, low productivity and a lack of investments. The rise in unemployment has aggravated the already precarious living conditions of large sections of the population, which was partially alleviated by a vast fiscal stimulus package that shored up the recession. The burden on the already afflicted public finances limited the intervention over time and in 2021 the average living conditions worsened even more.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)135.75index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)110.38index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population99 843 099units2020
Active population, Females43.6%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females52.5%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 262 677.1M LCU2020
Revenues1 592 038.7M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.68%2020
industry19.642%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.182%2019
industry20.934%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation370.441BN LCU2020
International reserves355 614.251M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Brazil is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of agricultural produce: especially soya and maize (grown in the states of Mato Grosso, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul), sugar cane (São Paulo), coffee (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo), citrus fruits (São Paulo), cotton (Mato Grosso, Bahia), cocoa (Bahia, Pará). Also important are rice, cassava, dried beans and potatoes, which, along with maize, constitute the staple diet of many Brazilians. Brazil has the largest expanses of rainforest anywhere in the world. They provide a vast range of prized timber, rubber, palm oil (such as the Attalea speciosa which produces babassu nuts, and the Bertholletia excelsa which produces Brazil nuts) and the Carnauba palm (which produces wax). Unrestricted deforestation continues at the pace of thousands of square kilometres per year. The rainforest is cut down to make room for large intensive farms (soya) and cattle farming. Biotechnology (GMOs) is widely used by farmers to increase yields.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming, mostly of cattle, and conducted on a commercial basis, is practised mainly in the southern prairies, the central plateau and the north-east. The country is the world’s leading exporter of beef and chicken meat. The fishing industry is very important indeed (Cynoscion spp., sardines, tuna, catfish, prawns, lobsters), and conducted mainly in the states of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Maranhão, Santa Catarina, Pará, Rio de Janeiro and Amazonas (fishing on the River Amazon and its tributaries); aquaculture is also relevant (tilapia and carp).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.6%2018
forests59.708%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley409.0991000 t2019
cereals, total121 222.8131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava17 497.1151000 t2019
potatoes3 696.931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic131.5231000 t2019
muskmelons587.6921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2 906.5081000 t2019
broad beans, dry11.4491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 485.2921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives2.5051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed16.3491000 t2019
groundnuts580.5741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 583.2931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts0.2721000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2 330.9491000 t2019
copra4$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa259.4251000 t2019
coffee3 009.4021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane752 895.3891000 t2019
tobacco769.8011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton6 893.341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed3.7721000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.0091000 t2019
sisal86.821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 222.9791000 t2019
figs22.5261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts138.7541000 t2019
walnuts6.1751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits19 652.7881000 t2019
grapefruits83.1131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados242.9321000 t2019
bananas6 812.7081000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley113.8141000 ha2019
maize17 518.0541000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 190.1211000 ha2019
potatoes116.6821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic11.2091000 ha2019
muskmelons22.1271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2 610.5851000 ha2019
broad beans, dry32.451000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape74.6251000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive1.4181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed50.5671000 ha2019
groundnuts171.5671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit177.4751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts0.0671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts186.951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa581.8841000 ha2019
coffee1 823.4031000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane10 081.171000 ha2019
tobacco361.8271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1 627.1631000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed3.9571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.0091000 ha2019
sisal99.1571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples32.4051000 ha2019
figs2.2081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts426.4171000 ha2019
walnuts3.5481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits703.3371000 ha2019
grapefruits4.4361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados15.3151000 ha2019
bananas461.7511000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber217 387t2019
timber266 288 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle214 659.841000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes216 093.9811000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 434.1411000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs40 556.8921000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep19 715.5871000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats11 301.4811000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses788.5951000 heads2019
asses and mules2 041.7981000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 504 6131000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey45.9811000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.4891000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter109.11000 t2018
cheese58.5341000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs137 536.5t2019
freshwater fishes746 523.453t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Brazil has large reserves of oil on the mainland (in the states of Bahia, Alagoas, Sergipe, Espírito Santo, Paraná and Amazonas), offshore on the continental shelf (the field of Campos, in the state of Rio de Janeiro) and in the ocean. The state-owned oil company Petrobras operates at home and abroad. The main oil pipelines include: Rio-Belo Horizonte (365 km), São Sebastião-Cubatão (120 km) and Tramandaí-Canoas (99 km). It also has reserves of natural gas (in the states of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe, Alagoas and Rio Grande) and coal. Moreover, the southern states are connected to Bolivian reserves by a gas pipeline.
Brazil’s mineral deposits contain bauxite (in Minas Gerais and Pará), manganese (in Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará), iron (in Amapá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará), niobium (in Goiás and Minas Gerais), gold (in Amapá, Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Pará) and diamonds (in Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais). It also has plentiful reserves of zinc, tin, nickel, tungsten, vanadium, chromite and rare earths.
Energy.
A great deal of the country’s electrical energy comes from hydropower with major plants located at Itaipú (a joint project with Paraguay on the River Paraná), Tucuruí, on the River Tocantins, and Belo Monte, which is being built on the River Xingu. At Angra dos Reis there is a nuclear power plant with two reactors which are already operational, while the construction of a third is currently suspended.
Industry.
Brazil is one of the world’s top ten industrialized nations. Basic industry is well represented: iron and steel (at Volta Redonda, in the state of Rio de Janeiro; Usiminas, in Minas Gerais; Cosipa, near São Paulo), metalworking (at Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo, São Caetano do Sul and São Paulo); oil-refining and chemicals, with refineries at Araucária (Paraná), Betim (Minas Gerais), Canoas (Rio Grande do Sul), Cubatão, Mauá, Paulínia, São José dos Campos (São Paulo), Duque de Caxias (Rio de Janeiro), Fortaleza (Ceará), Guamaré (Rio Grande do Norte), Ipojuca (Pernambuco), Itaboraí (Rio de Janeiro), Manaus (Amazonas), São Francisco do Conde (Bahia) and chemical plants at Recife, Cabo Frio, Salvador, Aracajú, Curitiba, Niterói, São Paulo and Porto Alegre.
Some engineering segments are very advanced, especially in the aeronautical industry (Embraer is the world’s third-largest aircraft company), in the state of São Paulo, and the automotive industry (in which the largest multi-national companies in the sector operate). Car production is concentrated in São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, São Bernardo do Campo, Betim, Camacari, Taubaté, Pinhais, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre and Salvador. There are top-level industrial parks in the south-east, like the São José dos Campos space centre and the technopolis of Campinas; other important parks are located in the states of Bahia, Pernambuco and Ceará. The tax-free zone of Manaus is host to electronics and engineering companies. There are hi-tech companies in Brasília, Porto Alegre, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Other important industries include rubber (Campinas, Duque de Caxias and Cabo), paper (São Paulo, Campinas, and the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina), cement (in the states of Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro), and shipbuilding (Niterói, Angra dos Reis and Porto Alegre). The textile industry is highly developed in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, São José dos Campos, São Caetano do Sul, Santo André and Agua Branca. The agro-food industry is represented in the states of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 7881000 t2019
coal, total6 184.91000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite35 0001000 t2020
beryllium0.0031000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos60$1000 t2020
barite3.41000 t2014
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin1 7001000 t2020
limestone8 3001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds1001000 ct2020
diamonds, industrial - ct6001000 ct2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro393 898M kWh2019
- other renew.117 155M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro109 0581000 kW2019
- other renew.32 841.11000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation615 353.28M kWh2019
total installed capacity163 010.081000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina9 6001000 t2020
aluminium6501000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes4 175 000no.2019
cars1 608 870no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras84 968no.2017
watches and clocks8 603 000no.2019
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners6 644 993no.2019
computers369 000no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1 7221000 t2019
petrol31 850.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia363.41000 t2019
artificial tow0.1211000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets34 391.11000 m²2019
cotton fabrics - t459.51000 t2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear899 167 023pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley15 319.5321000 t2018
coconut oil11.8861000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes67 914M units2019
cigars4.4M units2012
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp19 2021000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp19 6921000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement57 0001000 t2020
sheet glass479.81000 m²2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production27 816.519M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production46 539.942M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) soya beans 25 718, iron ores 19 199, crude oil and petroleum products 18 626, vehicles and parts thereof 14 724, meat 13 953, machinery 13 848, iron and steel 12 255, sugar and derived products 11 566, ships and boats 7 796, chemicals 7 125, wood pulp 6 355, residues and wastes of food industry 5 395, maize 4 631, coffee 4 613, aircraft and parts thereof 4 045, plastics 3 656


Finance and banking.
The monetary policy of Brazil is controlled by the Banco Central do Brasil. The main stock exchange is in São Paulo (B3).

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products33.874% of goods exports2019
manufactures31.508% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China67 788M US$2020
United States21 618M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China36 737M US$2020
United States29 722M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020209 878M US$ -
2019225 384M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020166 276M US$ -
2019184 370M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The tourist industry is experiencing growth.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures21 178M US$2019
Number of arrivals6 353 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
Highways are developed especially in the south-east. There are two main land routes running east-west across the country (the Trans-Amazon Highway and the Sudeste-Rondônia Highway). The waterway network is very extensive. Air services connect the main cities; there are also many small airports.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown667 000 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried102 917.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers155.956per 1000 pop.2019
Computers161.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Primary education is compulsory between the age of 7 and 14, also secondary education between 15 and 17, but many children leave school before they have completed their education. The most prestigious universities are in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte.


Social security and health.
The Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (INSS) provides the social welfare. The social security system for Amerindian communities is managed by the Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI).

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.703years2018
Gradautes, percentage18.43%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level15 951 913units2018
Students, secondary level22 863 908units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending42.8% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.09per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians2.16per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2019
HIV, total0.4%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.16% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.9%2019
Access to electricity99.8%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.3%2017-18
education4.7%2017-18
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