Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 8 515 767 sq km
Population: 207 660 929 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 24.39 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 5° N - 34° S; long. 74° - 35° W
Capital: Brasília (capital) 3 039 444 inhab. (2017); Brasília 4 366 901 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: real (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.754 (rank: 79)
President and head of government: Michel Temer (PMDB), since 12 May 2016
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 5 October 2014: “With the Strength of the People” (coalition formed by the Workers’ Party-PT, Brazilian Democratic Movement Party-PMDB, Social Democratic Party-PSD, Progressive Party-PP, Republic Party-PR, Brazilian Republican Party-PRB, Democratic Labor Party-PDT and others), 304; “Change Brazil” (coalition formed by the Brazilian Social Democratic Party-PSDB, Brazilian Labor Party-PTB, Democrats-DEM, Solidarity-SD and others), 128; “United for Brazil” (coalition formed by the Brazilian Socialist Party-PSB, Popular Socialist Party-PPS and others), 53; others, 28
Internet: www.ibge.gov.br (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Brazil

Brasil, República Federativa do Brasil
Useful information

International license plate code BR
International dialling code 0055
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .br

GMT Brasília -3; Rio de Janeiro -3; Manaus -4; Porto Acre -5; Fernando de Noronha Archipelago -2
DST Brasília -2; Rio de Janeiro -2; Manaus not applied; Porto Acre not applied; Fernando de Noronha Archipelago not applied
DST duration (start-end) mid October (Sunday 19)-mid February

Annual average temperature (°C) Brasília 21.3; Belém 26.7; Manaus 27.5; Porto Alegre 20.1; Rio de Janeiro 23.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Brasília 22/19; Belém 26.5/27; Manaus 27/27.5; Porto Alegre 25/15.5; Rio de Janeiro 26/21.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Brasília 8.5/4.5; Belém 7.5/6; Manaus 6/4; Porto Alegre 4.5/8; Rio de Janeiro 5.5/5.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Brasília 1554; Belém 2880; Manaus 2285; Porto Alegre 1330; Rio de Janeiro 1170
Days of rainfall (annual average) Brasília 128; Belém 240; Manaus 157; Porto Alegre 112; Rio de Janeiro 124

Politics and current affairs

On 24 January 2018, former president Inácio “Lula” Da Silva’s appeal for his conviction for corruption and money laundering was struck down, and on 7 April, Da Silva began to serve his sentence, despite his candidacy (later withdrawn) in the elections planned for October. Michel Temer, president since the dismissal of D. Rousseff, was also formally accused (26 June 2017), but on 2 August and 25 October 2017, the Chamber voted against pursuing his case.

Geography.
Brazil is bordered by almost all of the states of South America (starting in the north and working anti-clockwise: French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay).
The Atlantic Ocean lies off its east coast and it has 7491 km of coastline. The country is formed by a high plateau that slopes down towards the plains of the River Paraná and the River Paraguay in the west and the River Amazon in the north. The edges of the eastern plateau (the Brazilian Highlands or Brazilian Plateau) are mountainous (here the mountain ranges are known as serras), with some of Brazil’s highest peaks (Pico da Bandeira, 2897 m and Pico das Agulhas Negras, 2787 m).
In the centre of the plateau, the Mato Grosso Plateau slopes down towards the Amazonian basin, a vast basin measuring 5 million km², covered with rainforest. In the north stand the Guiana Highlands, culminating in Pico da Neblina (3014 m).
The largest river is the River Amazon which flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a vast estuary.
It has a tropical climate. The Fernando de Noronha archipelago (state of Pernambuco), the Rocas Atoll (state of Rio Grande do Norte), the Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (in the state of Pernambuco), the island of Trindade and the uninhabited islands of Martim Vaz (in the state of Espírito Santo) also belong to Brazil.

Government


Brazil became independent from Portugal on 7 September 1822 (as the “Empire of Brazil”), and became a republic in 1889, following a military takeover. In the 1891 Constitution it adopted presidential rule and became a federal republic. In 1964, after ten years of rule by left-wing populist parties, a military coup installed a dictatorship which lasted until 1988, when power was restored to civilians. After that, political power remained firmly in the hands of the conservatives until the elections of 2002 when a broad centre-left coalition established itself, led by Inácio “Lula” Da Silva until 2010, who was succeeded by Dilma Rousseff until 2016, then dismissed with the accusation of falsifying the budget.
According to the 1988 Constitution and the referendum of 1993, Brazil is a presidential federal republic. The country is composed of 26 states plus the federal district of Brasilia, the capital. Each state has its own administrative, legislative and judicial institutions. The President of the Republic, who is also the head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage. Legislative power lies in the hands of Parliament (the National Congress), comprising a Chamber of Deputies (513 members elected for four years) and the Senate (81 members elected for eight years, one-third and two-thirds of whom are alternatively renewed every four years). There is also a Council of the Republic which is summoned in times of national emergency.


Defence.
In addition to the armed forces, each state has its own paramilitary corps, placed under the control of the army. Military service, which is compulsory, lasts for 12 months.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on European Law. The highest law court is the Supreme Federal Tribunal, composed of 11 judges appointed by the President. There is no life-sentence.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force20.2%2015
Army59.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes927per 100 000 pop.2001
Homicides26.7per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
São Paulo12 106 920inhab.2017
Rio de Janeiro6 520 266inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
São Paulo21 391 624inhab.2017
Rio de Janeiro12 262 185inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Despite economic growth, the distribution of income is extremely unequal and large sections of the population still live in poverty. Indigenous communities have been reduced to a few hundred thousand, concentrated along the River Amazon, in the Mato Grosso, in the states of Pará, Roraima and Maranhão and in the Indigenous Park of the Xingu (on the central plateau).
In 2004 Brazil adopted the ILO Convention 169 regarding the rights of indigenous peoples, which guarantees protection for indigenous tribes, their culture and traditions. There are many blacks, especially in the northern coastal regions, between Salvador and Recife. There are large numbers of Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards and Germans.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate13.62016
Death rate6.22016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white47.7%2010
mulatto43.1%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic65%2010
Protestant20.8%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Amerindian languages
Portuguese (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years22.3%2017
15-29 years24.4%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
After the serious 2015-16 recession, driven by a drop in oil prices, low productivity and a shortage of investments, in 2017, economic growth was once again positive, strengthening in 2018; unemployment, which almost doubled between 2013 and 2017, began to drop. Since 2013, the public debt continues to increase; austerity measures and cuts to public spending promoted by the government have had limited effects on the inflexibility on the budget and the hostility of public opinion, which is fed by some reforms as well, such as those regarding employment (2017).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)135.75index2016
Balance of trade60 293M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population104 278 183units2017
Active population, Females42.9%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12.7%2017
Unemployment rate, Females50.7%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 658 901.7M LCU2017
Revenues1 413 566.5M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.3%2017
industry20.8%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.5%2016
industry21.2%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation250.4BN LCU2017
International reserves373 955.5M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Brazil is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of agricultural produce: especially soya (grown in the states of Mato Grosso and Paraná), maize (Paraná, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul), sugar cane (São Paulo), coffee (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo), citrus fruits (São Paulo), cotton (Mato Grosso, Bahia), cocoa (Bahia, Pará). Also important are rice, cassava, dried beans and potatoes, which, along with maize, constitute the staple diet of many Brazilians. Brazil has the largest expanses of rainforest anywhere in the world. They provide a vast range of prized timber, rubber, palm oil (such as the Attalea speciosa which produces babassu nuts, and the Bertholletia excelsa which produces Brazil nuts) and the Carnauba palm (which produces wax). Unrestricted deforestation continues at the pace of thousands of square kilometres per year. The rainforest is cut down to make room for large intensive farms (soya) and cattle farming. Biotechnology (GMOs) is widely used by farmers to increase yields.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming, mostly of cattle, and conducted on a commercial basis, is practised mainly in the southern prairies, the central plateau and the north-east. The country is the world’s leading exporter of beef and chicken meat. The fishing industry is very important indeed (Cynoscion spp., sardines, tuna, catfish, prawns, lobsters), and conducted mainly in the states of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Maranhão, Santa Catarina, Pará, Rio de Janeiro and Amazonas (fishing on the River Amazon and its tributaries); aquaculture is also relevant (tilapia and carp).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.36%2015
forests59.05%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley379.6871000 t2016
cereals, total84 128.4821000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava21 082.8671000 t2016
potatoes3 851.3961000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic132.3591000 t2016
muskmelons596.431000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2 615.8321000 t2016
broad beans, dry3.6371000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes984.4811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives0.6471000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed24.621000 t2016
groundnuts564.7851000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits1 647.4171000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts0.2281000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2 649.2461000 t2016
copra41000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa213.8431000 t2016
coffee3 019.0511000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane768 678.3821000 t2016
tobacco675.5451000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3 464.1031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed12.9731000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute9.3021000 t2014
sisal180.9481000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 049.2511000 t2016
figs26.911000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts75.5481000 t2016
walnuts5.4531000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits19 591.6231000 t2016
grapefruits79.9861000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados195.4921000 t2016
bananas6 764.3241000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley91.0551000 ha2016
maize14 958.8621000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 406.2581000 ha2016
potatoes129.8421000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic11.4031000 ha2016
muskmelons23.1051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2 584.171000 ha2016
broad beans, dry16.5031000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape76.9971000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.5741000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed44.3511000 ha2016
groundnuts154.5561000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit142.2461000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts0.0641000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts234.0121000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa720.0531000 ha2016
coffee1 994.7611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane10 226.2051000 ha2016
tobacco375.6221000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton996.1881000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed11.661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute6.6251000 ha2014
sisal199.1041000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples33.9811000 ha2016
figs2.8041000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts567.5471000 ha2016
walnuts3.4091000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits759.9511000 ha2016
grapefruits4.4951000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados10.8551000 ha2016
bananas469.7111000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber189 377t2016
timber256 809 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle218 225.1771000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes219 596.1181000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 370.9411000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs39 950.321000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep18 433.811000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats9 780.5331000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses862.9631000 heads2016
asses and mules2 099.1591000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 388 1011000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey38.4811000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.41000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter103.51000 t2014
cheese46.641000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs140 405t2016
freshwater fishes724 417t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Brazil has large reserves of oil on the mainland (in the states of Bahia, Alagoas, Sergipe, Espírito Santo, Paraná and Amazonas), offshore on the continental shelf (the field of Campos, in the state of Rio de Janeiro) and in the ocean. The state-owned oil company Petrobras operates at home and abroad. The main oil pipelines include: Rio-Belo Horizonte (365 km), São Sebastião-Cubatão (120 km) and Tramandaí-Canoas (99 km). It also has reserves of natural gas (in the states of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe, Alagoas and Rio Grande) and coal. Moreover, the southern states are connected to Bolivian reserves by a gas pipeline.
Brazil’s mineral deposits contain bauxite (deposits at Poços de Caldas, in the state of Minas Gerais), manganese (in Bahia, Mato Grosso and Amapá), iron (in Minas Gerais), gold (in Pará, Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais) and diamonds (in Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais). It also has plentiful reserves of zinc, tin, nickel, tungsten and chromite.
Energy and industry.
A great deal of the country’s electrical energy comes from hydro-electric power. The main hydro-electric power plants are located at Itaipú (a joint project with Paraguay on the River Paraná), Tucuruí, on the River Tocantins, and Belo Monte, which is under construction on the River Xingu. At Angra dos Reis there is a nuclear power plant with two reactors which are already operational, while a third is under construction. Brazil is one of the world’s top ten industrialized nations. Basic industry is well represented: iron and steel (at Volta Redonda, in the state of Rio de Janeiro; Usiminas, in Minas Gerais; Cosipa, near São Paulo), metalworking (at Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo, São Caetano do Sul and São Paulo); oil-refining and chemicals, with refineries at Araucária (Paraná), Betim (Minas Gerais), Canoas (Rio Grande do Sul), Cubatão, Mauá, Paulínia, São José dos Campos (São Paulo), Duque de Caxias (Rio de Janeiro), Fortaleza (Ceará), Guamaré (Rio Grande do Norte), Ipojuca (Pernambuco), Itaboraí (Rio de Janeiro), Manaus (Amazonas), São Francisco do Conde (Bahia) and chemical plants at Recife, Cabo Frio, Salvador, Aracajú, Curitiba, Niterói, São Paulo and Porto Alegre.
Some engineering segments are very advanced, especially in the aeronautical industry (Embraer is the world’s fourth-largest aircraft company) and the automotive industry (in which the largest multi-national companies in the sector operate). Car production is concentrated in São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, São Bernardo do Campo, Betim, Camacari, Taubaté, Pinhais, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre and Salvador. There are top-level industrial parks in the south-east, like the São José dos Campos space centre and the technopolis of Campinas; other important parks are located in the states of Bahia, Pernambuco and Ceará. The tax-free zone of Manaus is host to electronics and engineering companies. There are hi-tech companies in Brasília, Porto Alegre, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Other important industries include rubber (Campinas, Duque de Caxias and Cabo), paper (São Paulo, Campinas, and the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina), cement (in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco) and shipbuilding (Niterói, Angra dos Reis and Porto Alegre). The textile industry is highly developed in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, São José dos Campos, São Caetano do Sul, Santo André and Agua Branca.
The agro-food industry is represented in the states of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal4 4691000 t2015
coal, total6 986.81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite36 0001000 t2017
beryllium0.0031000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos1501000 t2017
barite3.41000 t2014
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2 1001000 t2017
limestone8 3001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds1801000 ct2017
diamonds, industrial - ct6001000 ct2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro356 146M kWh2015
- thermal128 120.12M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro92 0601000 kW2015
- thermal39 5641000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation568 650.12M kWh2015
total installed capacity155 5511000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina11 0001000 t2017
aluminium8001000 t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes5 178 356no.2015
cars2 269 468no.2017
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras393 785no.2015
watches and clocks7 621 883no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners8 962 463no.2015
computers1 483 244no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2 0151000 t2015
petrol31 850.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 0001000 t2017
artificial tow11.11000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets29 694.11000 m²2015
cotton fabrics - t433.71000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear24 667 353 072pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley14 0001000 t2014
coconut oil21000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes71 301M units2015
cigars4.4M units2012
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp18 2711000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp18 7721000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement54 0001000 t2017
sheet glass479.81000 m²2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production29 046.9M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production55 815.1M US$2013
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) soya beans 25 718, iron ores 19 199, crude oil and petroleum products 18 626, vehicles and parts thereof 14 724, meat 13 953, machinery 13 848, iron and steel 12 255, sugar and derived products 11 566, ships and boats 7 796, chemicals 7 125, wood pulp 6 355, residues and wastes of food industry 5 395, maize 4 631, coffee 4 613, aircraft and parts thereof 4 045, plastics 3 656


Finance and banking.
The monetary policy of Brazil is controlled by the Banco Central do Brasil. The main stock exchange is in São Paulo (BM&F Bovespa).

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures39.862% of goods exports2016
food products37.290% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China47 488M US$2017
United States27 147M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China27 321M US$2017
United States25 112M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017217 768.55M US$ -
2016185 286.37M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017157 476.05M US$ -
2016143 492.04M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The tourist industry is experiencing growth.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures17 068M US$2016
Number of arrivals6 578 000units2016
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Communications


Transport.
Highways are developed especially in the south-east. There are two main land routes running east-west across the country (the Trans-Amazon Highway and the Sudeste-Rondônia Highway). The waterway network is very extensive. Air services connect the main cities; there are also many small airports.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown667 000 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried96 395.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers136.988per 1000 pop.2017
Computers161.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Primary education is compulsory between the age of 7 and 14, also secondary education between 15 and 17, but many children leave school before they have completed their education. The most prestigious universities are in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte.


Social security and health.
The Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (INSS) provides the social welfare. The social security system for Amerindian communities is managed by the Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI).

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.4years2015
Gradautes, percentage14.8%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level791 787units2015
Teachers, secondary level1 428 559units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending47.2% of total expenses1998
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.3per 1000 pop.2012
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2016
HIV, total0.4%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.28% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.59%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.5%2008-09
education3%2008-09
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