Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 8 510 821 sq km
Population: 208 494 900 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 24.50 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 5° N - 34° S; long. 74° - 35° W
Capital: Brasília (capital) 2 974 703 inhab. (2018); Brasília 4 341 733 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: real (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.759 (rank: 79)
President and head of government: Jair Bolsonaro (PSL), elected 28 October 2018, in office since 1 January 2019
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 7 October 2018: PT ( Workers’ Party, democratic socialist), 56; PSL (Social Liberal Party, nationalist right), 52; PP (Progressistas, liberal conservative), 37; PSD (Social Democratic Party, liberal conservative), 34; MDB (Brazilian Democratic Movement, centrist), 34; PL (Liberal Party, conservative), 33; PSB (Brazilian Socialist Party), 32; PRB (Brazilian Republican Party, conservative), 30; PSDB (Brazilian Social Democracy Party), 29; DEM (Democrats, liberal conservative), 29; PDT (Democratic Labour Party, social democratic), 28; others, 119
Internet: www.ibge.gov.br (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, UN, WTO

Brazil

Brasil, República Federativa do Brasil
Useful information

International license plate code BR
International dialling code 0055
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/240
Driving side rigth
Internet code .br

GMT Brasília -3; Rio de Janeiro -3; Manaus -4; Porto Acre -5; Fernando de Noronha Archipelago -2
DST Brasília -2; Rio de Janeiro -2; Manaus not applied; Porto Acre not applied; Fernando de Noronha Archipelago not applied
DST duration (start-end) mid October (Sunday 19)-mid February

Annual average temperature (°C) Brasília 21.3; Belém 26.7; Manaus 27.5; Porto Alegre 20.1; Rio de Janeiro 23.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Brasília 22/19; Belém 26.5/27; Manaus 27/27.5; Porto Alegre 25/15.5; Rio de Janeiro 26/21.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Brasília 8.5/4.5; Belém 7.5/6; Manaus 6/4; Porto Alegre 4.5/8; Rio de Janeiro 5.5/5.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Brasília 1554; Belém 2880; Manaus 2285; Porto Alegre 1330; Rio de Janeiro 1170
Days of rainfall (annual average) Brasília 128; Belém 240; Manaus 157; Porto Alegre 112; Rio de Janeiro 124

Politics and current affairs

The general elections on 7 October 2018 were heavily affected by the exclusion of Inácio “Lula” Da Silva (PT), who was convicted of corruption and laundering. Against an extremely fragmented political backdrop, the Workers’ Party maintained its relative majority, but during the elections on 28 October, the far-right candidate J. Bolsonaro (PSL) was elected president.

Geography.
Brazil is bordered by almost all of the states of South America (starting in the north and working anti-clockwise: French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay).
The Atlantic Ocean lies off its east coast and it has 7491 km of coastline. The country is formed by a high plateau that slopes down towards the plains of the River Paraná and the River Paraguay in the west and the River Amazon in the north. The edges of the eastern plateau (the Brazilian Highlands or Brazilian Plateau) are mountainous (here the mountain ranges are known as serras), with some of Brazil’s highest peaks (Pico da Bandeira, 2897 m and Pico das Agulhas Negras, 2787 m).
In the centre of the plateau, the Mato Grosso Plateau slopes down towards the Amazonian basin, a vast basin measuring 5 million km², covered with rainforest. In the north stand the Guiana Highlands, culminating in Pico da Neblina (3014 m).
The largest river is the River Amazon which flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a vast estuary.
It has a tropical climate. The Fernando de Noronha archipelago (state of Pernambuco), the Rocas Atoll (state of Rio Grande do Norte), the Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (in the state of Pernambuco), the island of Trindade and the uninhabited islands of Martim Vaz (in the state of Espírito Santo) also belong to Brazil.

Government


Brazil became independent from Portugal on 7 September 1822 (as the “Empire of Brazil”), and became a republic in 1889, following a military takeover. In the 1891 Constitution it adopted presidential rule and became a federal republic. In 1964, after ten years of rule by left-wing populist parties, a military coup installed a dictatorship which lasted until 1988, when power was restored to civilians. After that, political power remained firmly in the hands of the conservatives until the elections of 2002 when a broad centre-left coalition established itself, led by Inácio “Lula” Da Silva until 2010, who was succeeded by Dilma Rousseff until 2016, then dismissed with the accusation of falsifying the budget.
According to the 1988 Constitution and the referendum of 1993, Brazil is a presidential federal republic. The country is composed of 26 states plus the federal district of Brasilia, the capital. Each state has its own administrative, legislative and judicial institutions. The President of the Republic, who is also the head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage. Legislative power lies in the hands of Parliament (the National Congress), comprising a Chamber of Deputies (513 members elected for four years) and the Senate (81 members elected for eight years, one-third and two-thirds of whom are alternatively renewed every four years). There is also a Council of the Republic which is summoned in times of national emergency.


Defence.
In addition to the armed forces, each state has its own paramilitary corps, placed under the control of the army. Military service, which is compulsory, lasts for 12 months.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on European Law. The highest law court is the Supreme Federal Tribunal, composed of 11 judges appointed by the President. There is no life-sentence.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force20.2%2015
Army59.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides29.5per 100 000 pop.2016
Police personnel262.4per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
São Paulo12 176 866inhab.2018
Rio de Janeiro6 688 927inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
São Paulo21 571 281inhab.2018
Rio de Janeiro12 581 369inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Despite economic growth, the distribution of income is extremely unequal and large sections of the population still live in poverty. Indigenous communities have been reduced to a few hundred thousand, concentrated along the River Amazon, in the Mato Grosso, in the states of Pará, Roraima and Maranhão and in the Indigenous Park of the Xingu (on the central plateau).
In 2004 Brazil adopted the ILO Convention 169 regarding the rights of indigenous peoples, which guarantees protection for indigenous tribes, their culture and traditions. There are many blacks, especially in the northern coastal regions, between Salvador and Recife. There are large numbers of Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards and Germans.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.32017
Death rate6.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white47.7%2010
mulatto43.1%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic65%2010
Protestant20.8%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Amerindian languages
Portuguese (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years21.9%2018
15-29 years24.2%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
After the serious 2015-16 recession, driven by a drop in oil prices, low productivity and a shortage of investments, in 2017-18, economic growth was once again positive, strengthening in 2018-19; unemployment, which almost doubled between 2013 and 2017, began to drop. Since 2013, the public debt has continued to increase and has made it necessary to introduce austerity measures and make cuts to public spending. To improve the financial sustainability of public accounts, the current executive branch has created a reform for the retirement system. It is still undergoing approval but it will include the introduction of a minimum retirement age.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)135.75index2016
Balance of trade50 963.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population106 034 877units2018
Active population, Females43.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12%2018
Unemployment rate, Females51.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 754 887.7M LCU2018
Revenues1 581 133.5M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.4%2018
industry20.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.2%2017
industry22.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation264.97BN LCU2018
International reserves374 709.7M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Brazil is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of agricultural produce: especially soya (grown in the states of Mato Grosso and Paraná), maize (Paraná, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul), sugar cane (São Paulo), coffee (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo), citrus fruits (São Paulo), cotton (Mato Grosso, Bahia), cocoa (Bahia, Pará). Also important are rice, cassava, dried beans and potatoes, which, along with maize, constitute the staple diet of many Brazilians. Brazil has the largest expanses of rainforest anywhere in the world. They provide a vast range of prized timber, rubber, palm oil (such as the Attalea speciosa which produces babassu nuts, and the Bertholletia excelsa which produces Brazil nuts) and the Carnauba palm (which produces wax). Unrestricted deforestation continues at the pace of thousands of square kilometres per year. The rainforest is cut down to make room for large intensive farms (soya) and cattle farming. Biotechnology (GMOs) is widely used by farmers to increase yields.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming, mostly of cattle, and conducted on a commercial basis, is practised mainly in the southern prairies, the central plateau and the north-east. The country is the world’s leading exporter of beef and chicken meat. The fishing industry is very important indeed (Cynoscion spp., sardines, tuna, catfish, prawns, lobsters), and conducted mainly in the states of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Maranhão, Santa Catarina, Pará, Rio de Janeiro and Amazonas (fishing on the River Amazon and its tributaries); aquaculture is also relevant (tilapia and carp).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.36%2015
forests59.05%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley300.9471000 t2017
cereals, total117 784.131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava18 876.471000 t2017
potatoes3 656.8461000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic120.8971000 t2017
muskmelons540.2291000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3 033.0171000 t2017
broad beans, dry10.0921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 912.0341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1.251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed13.4811000 t2017
groundnuts546.9251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits1 676.4211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts0.2251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2 342.9421000 t2017
copra41000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa235.8091000 t2017
coffee2 680.5151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane758 548.2921000 t2017
tobacco880.8811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3 842.8721000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed5.9531000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute9.3021000 t2014
sisal79.6291000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 300.9431000 t2017
figs25.8831000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts133.4651000 t2017
walnuts7.8921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits19 798.9121000 t2017
grapefruits80.8521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados213.0411000 t2017
bananas6 675.11000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley122.0191000 ha2017
maize17 393.5631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 314.8511000 ha2017
potatoes118.031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
garlic10.5881000 ha2017
muskmelons23.3771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2 795.2841000 ha2017
broad beans, dry23.2941000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape75.511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.9461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed47.1471000 ha2017
groundnuts154.31000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit111.2331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts0.0631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts215.6831000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa590.8131000 ha2017
coffee1 800.3981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane10 184.341000 ha2017
tobacco398.4181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton927.9871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed7.5251000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute6.6251000 ha2014
sisal84.8611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples33.1381000 ha2017
figs2.5911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts488.4911000 ha2017
walnuts3.8461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits734.3311000 ha2017
grapefruits4.5441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados12.941000 ha2017
bananas465.4341000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber191 368t2017
timber256 809 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle214 899.7961000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes216 281.1911000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 381.3951000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs41 099.461000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep17 976.3671000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats9 592.0791000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses841.3071000 heads2017
asses and mules2 083.381000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 462 4521000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey38.4811000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.41000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter103.51000 t2014
cheese46.641000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs148 845t2017
freshwater fishes730 697t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Brazil has large reserves of oil on the mainland (in the states of Bahia, Alagoas, Sergipe, Espírito Santo, Paraná and Amazonas), offshore on the continental shelf (the field of Campos, in the state of Rio de Janeiro) and in the ocean. The state-owned oil company Petrobras operates at home and abroad. The main oil pipelines include: Rio-Belo Horizonte (365 km), São Sebastião-Cubatão (120 km) and Tramandaí-Canoas (99 km). It also has reserves of natural gas (in the states of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe, Alagoas and Rio Grande) and coal. Moreover, the southern states are connected to Bolivian reserves by a gas pipeline.
Brazil’s mineral deposits contain bauxite (in Minas Gerais and Pará), manganese (in Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará), iron (in Amapá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará), niobium (in Goiás and Minas Gerais), gold (in Amapá, Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Pará) and diamonds (in Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais). It also has plentiful reserves of zinc, tin, nickel, tungsten, vanadium, chromite and rare earths.
Energy and industry.
A great deal of the country’s electrical energy comes from hydro-electric power. The main hydro-electric power plants are located at Itaipú (a joint project with Paraguay on the River Paraná), Tucuruí, on the River Tocantins, and Belo Monte, which is under construction on the River Xingu. At Angra dos Reis there is a nuclear power plant with two reactors which are already operational, while a third is under construction. Brazil is one of the world’s top ten industrialized nations. Basic industry is well represented: iron and steel (at Volta Redonda, in the state of Rio de Janeiro; Usiminas, in Minas Gerais; Cosipa, near São Paulo), metalworking (at Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo, São Caetano do Sul and São Paulo); oil-refining and chemicals, with refineries at Araucária (Paraná), Betim (Minas Gerais), Canoas (Rio Grande do Sul), Cubatão, Mauá, Paulínia, São José dos Campos (São Paulo), Duque de Caxias (Rio de Janeiro), Fortaleza (Ceará), Guamaré (Rio Grande do Norte), Ipojuca (Pernambuco), Itaboraí (Rio de Janeiro), Manaus (Amazonas), São Francisco do Conde (Bahia) and chemical plants at Recife, Cabo Frio, Salvador, Aracajú, Curitiba, Niterói, São Paulo and Porto Alegre.
Some engineering segments are very advanced, especially in the aeronautical industry (Embraer is the world’s fourth-largest aircraft company) and the automotive industry (in which the largest multi-national companies in the sector operate). Car production is concentrated in São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, São Bernardo do Campo, Betim, Camacari, Taubaté, Pinhais, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre and Salvador. There are top-level industrial parks in the south-east, like the São José dos Campos space centre and the technopolis of Campinas; other important parks are located in the states of Bahia, Pernambuco and Ceará. The tax-free zone of Manaus is host to electronics and engineering companies. There are hi-tech companies in Brasília, Porto Alegre, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Other important industries include rubber (Campinas, Duque de Caxias and Cabo), paper (São Paulo, Campinas, and the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina), cement (in the states of Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro), and shipbuilding (Niterói, Angra dos Reis and Porto Alegre). The textile industry is highly developed in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, São José dos Campos, São Caetano do Sul, Santo André and Agua Branca. The agro-food industry is represented in the states of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 3261000 t2017
coal, total2 7101000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite27 0001000 t2018
beryllium0.0031000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asbestos1001000 t2018
barite3.41000 t2014
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2 0001000 t2018
limestone8 3001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds2501000 ct2018
diamonds, industrial - ct6001000 ct2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro377 102M kWh2016
- thermal91 657.52M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro96 9301000 kW2016
- thermal26 9381000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation567 946.98M kWh2016
total installed capacity150 772.11000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina7 9001000 t2018
aluminium6601000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes3 688 000no.2017
cars2 386 758no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras84 968no.2017
watches and clocks9 049 249no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners6 631 803no.2017
computers369 000no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2 1521000 t2016
petrol31 850.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 0001000 t2018
artificial tow11.11000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets48 315.91000 m²2017
cotton fabrics - t465.61000 t2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear903 336 087pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley14 0001000 t2014
coconut oil21000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes63 099M units2017
cigars4.4M units2012
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp19 0371000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp19 5271000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement52 0001000 t2018
sheet glass479.81000 m²2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production27 200.4M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production45 209.6M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) soya beans 25 718, iron ores 19 199, crude oil and petroleum products 18 626, vehicles and parts thereof 14 724, meat 13 953, machinery 13 848, iron and steel 12 255, sugar and derived products 11 566, ships and boats 7 796, chemicals 7 125, wood pulp 6 355, residues and wastes of food industry 5 395, maize 4 631, coffee 4 613, aircraft and parts thereof 4 045, plastics 3 656


Finance and banking.
The monetary policy of Brazil is controlled by the Banco Central do Brasil. The main stock exchange is in São Paulo (BM&F Bovespa).

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures37.591% of goods exports2017
food products36.107% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China64 206M US$2018
United States29 170M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China34 730M US$2018
United States29 350M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018239 681M US$ -
2017217 826M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018188 718M US$ -
2017157 543M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The tourist industry is experiencing growth.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures22 991M US$2017
Number of arrivals6 589 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
Highways are developed especially in the south-east. There are two main land routes running east-west across the country (the Trans-Amazon Highway and the Sudeste-Rondônia Highway). The waterway network is very extensive. Air services connect the main cities; there are also many small airports.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown667 000 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried96 395.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers136.988per 1000 pop.2017
Computers161.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Primary education is compulsory between the age of 7 and 14, also secondary education between 15 and 17, but many children leave school before they have completed their education. The most prestigious universities are in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte.


Social security and health.
The Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (INSS) provides the social welfare. The social security system for Amerindian communities is managed by the Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI).

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.4years2015
Gradautes, percentage14.8%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level791 787units2015
Teachers, secondary level1 428 559units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40.1% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.2per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2017
HIV, total0.4%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.3% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.59%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.5%2008-09
education3%2008-09
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