Form of Government: Republic
Area: 581 730 sq km
Population: 2 351 625 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 4.04 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° - 27° S; long. 20° - 29° E
Capital: Gaborone (capital) 269 365 inhab. (2018); Gaborone 431 437 inhab. (2011), urban agglomeration
Currency: pula (100 thebe)
Human development index: 0.735 (rank: 100)
President and head of government: Mokgweetsi Masisi (BDP), since 1 April 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 23 October 2019: BDP (Democratic Party, conservative), 38; UDC (Umbrella for Democratic Change, left coalition), 15; BPF (Botswana Patriotic Front), 3; AP (Alliance for Progressives), 1
Internet: www.statsbots.org.bw (Statistics Botswana)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, SACU, SADC, UN, WTO

Botswana

Botswana, Republic of Botswana
Useful information

International license plate code RB
International dialling code 00267
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .bw

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Gaborone 17.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Gaborone 16/11
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Gaborone 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Gaborone 591
Days of rainfall (annual average) Gaborone 58

Geography.
Botswana is bordered by Namibia to the west and the north-west, by Zambia to the north, by Zimbabwe to the north-east and by South Africa to the south and south-west. The country lies on a plateau with an average height of 1000 m, the south-western part being occupied by the Kalahari Desert. The fairly limited river system includes the River Okavango, which also lends its name to the marshland area in the north of the country, the River Boteti and the River Molopo. The River Limpopo to the south-east acts as a natural border with South Africa. The climate is semi-arid with infrequent and low levels of rainfall. The island of Sedudu/Kasikili, claimed by Namibia, was finally assigned to Botswana on 14 December 1999.

Government


Originally a British protectorate known as Bechuanaland, Botswana obtained independence from the United Kingdom on 30 September 1966 under the leadership of Seretse Khama of the Democratic Party (BDP). Following Khama’s death in 1980, the country was led by Quett Ketumile J. Masire until 1998, who in turn handed over power to Festus Mogae, Sereste Khama Ian Khama (in 2008), son of Seretse Khama, and Mokgweetsi Masisi (in 2018). The BDP exercises political control closely over the country. Botswana is one of the few African countries to have always maintained democratic representative institutions. The President of the Republic holds executive power and is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly (63 members, 57 of whom elected for a five-year term, 4 appointed by the President and elected by the rest of the Assembly and 2 ex officio); operating alongside the National Assembly, the House of Chiefs only has consultative powers and consists of 35 members (8 representing the main tribes, 22 indirectly elected and 5 nominated by the President). The judicial system is based on continental European laws and local customs.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.6%2015
Army94.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes15 598.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides18.4per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gaborone269 365inhab.2018
Francistown111 706inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gaborone431 437inhab.2011
Francistown151 750inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate24.2342019
Death rate5.7082019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tswana66.8%2000
Shona14.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian79.3%2011
nonreligious/atheist15.3%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Setswana
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years30.5%2020
15-29 years27.1%2020


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Economy


Thanks also to political stability and significant public investments, the country’s economy is one of the most developed in Africa, although it is highly reliant on diamond mining, for which demand declined in 2020 in the context of the downturn in trade due to the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to a heavy budget deficit. The high level of unemployment and widespread HIV infection are some persistent problems the country faces.
The main crops for export are soya, sugar cane and sunflower. Maize, sorghum, potatoes and rice are important for subsistence. Droughts are a recurring threat. Livestock farming, mainly of cattle and goats is also of importance. The diamond mines (Jwaneng, Lethlakane, Orapa, Gaghoo) operate under a public-private partnership with the De Beers company of South Africa. There are also manganese reserves around Kgwakgwe and Ootse, copper around Selebi-Phikwe and coal around Morupule, Mambula and Palapye, as well as nickel and gold. There are textile, tanning and food industries (meat and beer), along with vehicle manufacturing. The main trading partners are South Africa, India, Belgium and the United Arab Emirates. Both tourism, focused on the nature reserves and national parks, and financial services also account for notable sources of income.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)119.84index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)97.94index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 111 000units2020
Active population, Females48.6%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate17.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females56.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses61 172M LCU2019
Revenues56 291M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20.7%2019
industry18.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.151%2019
industry31.225%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.458BN LCU2020
International reserves4 940.894M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.462%2018
forests27.335%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total48.9581000 t2019
maize7.2781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1.81000 t2019
roots and tubers, total107.1671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages14.3571000 t2019
carrots and turnips3.891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0881000 t2019
sunflower seed0.0581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.9691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total25.8741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4.0051000 t2019
oranges4.0051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mangoes0.1291000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize35.8621000 ha2019
millet3.421000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.851000 ha2019
sweet potatoes0.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.491000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.6381000 ha2019
sunflower seed0.4471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.5021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.351000 ha2019
oranges0.351000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber804 4722019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 1001000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 1001000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2.0891000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep172.9311000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 376.6881000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses139.5241000 heads2019
asses and mules143.0171000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5001000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.851000 t2018
cheese5.8271000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes73$t2019
total catch73$t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal1 971.51000 t2019
coal, total1 971.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper13.11000 t2018
nickel14.31000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt3701000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds13 0001000 ct2020
diamonds, industrial - ct5 0001000 ct2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 964.76M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation99.832%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal7521000 kW2018
- other renew.3$1000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation2 969.76M kWh2018
total installed capacity7551000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt0.3161000 t2015
copper11.31000 t2016
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda2801000 t2003
soda ash2501000 t2020
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1501000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.0971000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement16$1000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food, beverages and tobacco production227.763M US$2018
manufacturing production853.784M US$2020
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures96.239% of goods exports2019
food products1.714% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Kingdom2 606M US$2010
South Africa606.3M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa4 118M US$2010
United Kingdom525.1M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 221M US$ -
20195 241M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 325M US$ -
20196 565M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures231.3M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 655 000units2018
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown3 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried299.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers21.398per 1000 pop.2019
Computers62.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.1years2013
Graduates10 631units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level344 618units2015
Students, secondary level176 211units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.5per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians0.53per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV20.7% of adults2019
HIV, total21.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.54% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking52.8%2019
Access to electricity70.183%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing6.1%2015-16
education4.7%2015-16
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