Form of Government: Republic
Area: 581 730 sq km
Population: 2 266 949 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 3.90 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° - 27° S; long. 20° - 29° E
Capital: Gaborone (capital) 264 311 inhab. (2017); Gaborone 431 437 inhab. (2011), urban agglomeration
Currency: pula (100 thebe)
Human development index: 0.698 (rank: 108)
President and head of government: Mokgweetsi Masisi (BDP), since 1 April 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 24 October 2014: BDP (Democratic Party, conservative), 37; Umbrella for Democratic Change (left coalition), 17; BCP (Congress Party), 3
Internet: www.gov.bw/en/Citizens/Topics/Statistics (Central Statistics Office)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, SACU, SADC, UN, WTO

Botswana

Botswana, Republic of Botswana
Useful information

International license plate code RB
International dialling code 00267
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .bw

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Gaborone 17.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Gaborone 16/11
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Gaborone 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Gaborone 591
Days of rainfall (annual average) Gaborone 58

Politics and current affairs

Having reached his term limit, President Seretse Khama Ian Khama stepped down, leaving his vice-president, Mokgweetsi Masisi, to take over.

Geography.
Botswana is bordered by Namibia to the west and the north-west, by Zambia to the north, by Zimbabwe to the north-east and by South Africa to the south and south-west. The country lies on a plateau with an average height of 1000 m, the south-western part being occupied by the Kalahari Desert. The fairly limited river system includes the River Okavango, which also lends its name to the marshland area in the north of the country, the River Boteti and the River Molopo. The River Limpopo to the south-east acts as a natural border with South Africa. The climate is semi-arid with infrequent and low levels of rainfall. The island of Sedudu/Kasikili, claimed by Namibia, was finally assigned to Botswana on 14 December 1999.

Government


Originally a British protectorate known as Bechuanaland, Botswana obtained independence from the United Kingdom on 30 September 1966 under the leadership of Seretse Khama of the Democratic Party (BDP). Following Khama’s death in 1980, the country was led by Quett Ketumile J. Masire until 1998, who in turn handed over power to Festus Mogae, Sereste Khama Ian Khama (in 2008), son of Seretse Khama, and Mokgweetsi Masisi (in 2018). The BDP exercises political control closely over the country. Botswana is one of the few African countries to have always maintained democratic representative institutions. The President of the Republic holds executive power and is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly (63 members, 57 of whom elected for a five-year term, 4 appointed by the President and elected by the rest of the Assembly and 2 ex officio); operating alongside the National Assembly, the House of Chiefs only has consultative powers and consists of 35 members (8 representing the main tribes, 22 indirectly elected and 5 nominated by the President). The judicial system is based on continental European laws and local customs.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.6%2015
Army94.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes15 598.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides18.4per 100 000 pop.2012
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gaborone264 311inhab.2017
Francistown110 077inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gaborone431 437inhab.2011
Francistown151 750inhab.2011
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.72016
Death rate6.72016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tswana66.8%2000
Shona14.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian79.3%2011
nonreligious/atheist15.3%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Setswana
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years32%2017
15-29 years27.5%2017


TOP

Economy


Thanks to political stability and modern infrastructure, the country’s economy is one of the most developed in Africa, although it is highly reliant on diamond mining, for which demand has resumed in 2017 after a few years of decline. The high level of unemployment and widespread HIV infection are some persistent problems the country faces. The main crops for export are soya, sugar cane and sunflower. Maize, sorghum, potatoes and rice are important for subsistence. Droughts are a recurring threat. Livestock farming, mainly of cattle and goats is also of importance. The diamond mines (Jwaneng, Lethlakane, Orapa, Gaghoo) operate under a public-private partnership with the De Beers company of South Africa. There are also manganese reserves around Kgwakgwe and Ootse, copper around Selebi-Phikwe and coal around Morupule, Mambula and Palapye, as well as nickel and gold. There are textile, tanning and food industries (meat and beer), along with vehicle manufacturing. The main trading partners are South Africa, Namibia and the EU. The main trading partners are South Africa, Namibia and the EU. Both tourism, focused on the nature reserves and national parks, and financial services also account for notable sources of income.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)119.84index2016
Balance of trade757M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 130 048units2017
Active population, Females46.6%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate18.1%2017
Unemployment rate, Females56.2%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses56 275M LCU2017
Revenues57 399M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture26.2%2017
industry13.5%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.2%2016
industry34.7%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.1BN LCU2017
International reserves7 490.5M US$2017
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.71%2015
forests19.13%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total44.7871000 t2016
maize11.7821000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
roots and tubers, total101.9641000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry4.2771000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.4491000 t2016
sunflower seed3.7771000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.8421000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total6.4741000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.7671000 t2016
oranges0.7671000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize57.4741000 ha2016
millet4.0821000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry0.1191000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.1451000 ha2016
sunflower seed4.1881000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.3481000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0321000 ha2016
oranges0.0321000 ha2016
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber804 2182016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 974.9811000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 974.9811000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs4.1941000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep240.6721000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 336.0761000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses141.8891000 heads2016
asses and mules145.181000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds6151000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.0811000 t2014
cheese1.891000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes53t2016
total catch53t2016
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 0661000 t2015
coal, total2 0661000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper9.11000 t2015
nickel121000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt404.31000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds14 0001000 ct2017
diamonds, industrial - ct6 0001000 ct2017
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 788.04M kWh2015
non-renewable electricity generation99.964%2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1321000 kW2015
- other renew.21000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation2 789.04M kWh2015
total installed capacity1341000 kW2015
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt0.3161000 t2015
copper13.91000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda2801000 t2003
soda ash2501000 t2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley137.21000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.091000 t2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2601000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food, beverages and tobacco production229.2M US$2013
manufacturing production892.8M US$2017
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures93.831% of goods exports2016
ores and metals4.055% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Kingdom2 606M US$2010
South Africa606.3M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa4 118M US$2010
United Kingdom525.1M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20175 896.236M US$ -
20167 361.542M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20175 138.963M US$ -
20166 138.022M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures267M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 528 000units2015
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown3 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried220.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers21.338per 1000 pop.2017
Computers62.5per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.1years2013
Graduates10 236units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level15 035units2013
Teachers, secondary level16 539units2013
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.8per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.4per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV21.9% of adults2016
HIV, total21.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.54% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking64.08%2016
Access to electricity60.688%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing6.8%2002-03
education3.3%2002-03
TOP