Form of Government: Republic
Area: 581 730 sq km
Population: 2 303 037 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 3.96 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° - 27° S; long. 20° - 29° E
Capital: Gaborone (capital) 269 365 inhab. (2018); Gaborone 431 437 inhab. (2011), urban agglomeration
Currency: pula (100 thebe)
Human development index: 0.717 (rank: 101)
President and head of government: Mokgweetsi Masisi (BDP), since 1 April 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 24 October 2014: BDP (Democratic Party, conservative), 37; Umbrella for Democratic Change (left coalition), 17; BCP (Congress Party), 3
Internet: www.gov.bw/en/Citizens/Topics/Statistics (Central Statistics Office)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, SACU, SADC, UN, WTO

Botswana

Botswana, Republic of Botswana
Useful information

International license plate code RB
International dialling code 00267
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .bw

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Gaborone 17.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Gaborone 16/11
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Gaborone 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Gaborone 591
Days of rainfall (annual average) Gaborone 58

Politics and current affairs

Having reached his term limit, President Seretse Khama Ian Khama stepped down, leaving his vice-president, Mokgweetsi Masisi, to take over.

Geography.
Botswana is bordered by Namibia to the west and the north-west, by Zambia to the north, by Zimbabwe to the north-east and by South Africa to the south and south-west. The country lies on a plateau with an average height of 1000 m, the south-western part being occupied by the Kalahari Desert. The fairly limited river system includes the River Okavango, which also lends its name to the marshland area in the north of the country, the River Boteti and the River Molopo. The River Limpopo to the south-east acts as a natural border with South Africa. The climate is semi-arid with infrequent and low levels of rainfall. The island of Sedudu/Kasikili, claimed by Namibia, was finally assigned to Botswana on 14 December 1999.

Government


Originally a British protectorate known as Bechuanaland, Botswana obtained independence from the United Kingdom on 30 September 1966 under the leadership of Seretse Khama of the Democratic Party (BDP). Following Khama’s death in 1980, the country was led by Quett Ketumile J. Masire until 1998, who in turn handed over power to Festus Mogae, Sereste Khama Ian Khama (in 2008), son of Seretse Khama, and Mokgweetsi Masisi (in 2018). The BDP exercises political control closely over the country. Botswana is one of the few African countries to have always maintained democratic representative institutions. The President of the Republic holds executive power and is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly (63 members, 57 of whom elected for a five-year term, 4 appointed by the President and elected by the rest of the Assembly and 2 ex officio); operating alongside the National Assembly, the House of Chiefs only has consultative powers and consists of 35 members (8 representing the main tribes, 22 indirectly elected and 5 nominated by the President). The judicial system is based on continental European laws and local customs.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.6%2015
Army94.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes15 598.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides18.4per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gaborone269 365inhab.2018
Francistown111 706inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gaborone431 437inhab.2011
Francistown151 750inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.22017
Death rate6.42017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tswana66.8%2000
Shona14.8%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Christian79.3%2011
nonreligious/atheist15.3%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Setswana
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years31.5%2018
15-29 years27.4%2018


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Economy


Thanks also to political stability and significant public investments, the country’s economy is one of the most developed in Africa, although it is highly reliant on diamond mining, for which demand has resumed in 2017 after a few years of decline. The high level of unemployment and widespread HIV infection are some persistent problems the country faces. The main crops for export are soya, sugar cane and sunflower. Maize, sorghum, potatoes and rice are important for subsistence. Droughts are a recurring threat. Livestock farming, mainly of cattle and goats is also of importance. The diamond mines (Jwaneng, Lethlakane, Orapa, Gaghoo) operate under a public-private partnership with the De Beers company of South Africa. There are also manganese reserves around Kgwakgwe and Ootse, copper around Selebi-Phikwe and coal around Morupule, Mambula and Palapye, as well as nickel and gold.
There are textile, tanning and food industries (meat and beer), along with vehicle manufacturing. The main trading partners are South Africa, Belgium, India and the United Arab Emirates. Both tourism, focused on the nature reserves and national parks, and financial services also account for notable sources of income.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)119.84index2016
Balance of trade54.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 160 977units2018
Active population, Females46.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate17.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females56.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses58 393M LCU2018
Revenues56 411M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23%2018
industry18.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.2%2017
industry33.3%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.29BN LCU2018
International reserves6 656.9M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land0.71%2015
forests19.13%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total39.441000 t2017
maize12.2651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
roots and tubers, total102.3251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages8.21000 t2017
carrots and turnips0.151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.5581000 t2017
sunflower seed5.0471000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.7911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total6.4741000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.761000 t2017
oranges0.761000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize60.2521000 ha2017
millet4.531000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.111000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.11000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.1951000 ha2017
sunflower seed6.2071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.3321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0511000 ha2017
oranges0.0511000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber804 3002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 111.2521000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes2 111.2521000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3.781000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2301000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 484.5351000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2201000 heads2017
asses and mules223.3791000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 1001000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.0811000 t2014
cheese1.891000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes53t2017
total catch53t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 215.81000 t2017
coal, total2 215.81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper9.11000 t2015
nickel14.31000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt4001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds16 0001000 ct2018
diamonds, industrial - ct7 0001000 ct2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 524.84M kWh2016
non-renewable electricity generation99.920%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal7321000 kW2016
- other renew.31000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation2 526.84M kWh2016
total installed capacity7351000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt0.3161000 t2015
copper13.91000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda2801000 t2003
soda ash2301000 t2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley137.21000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.091000 t2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement151000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food, beverages and tobacco production197.6M US$2016
manufacturing production960.3M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures95.358% of goods exports2017
ores and metals2.588% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Kingdom2 606M US$2010
South Africa606.3M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
South Africa4 118M US$2010
United Kingdom525.1M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 959M US$ -
20175 911M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 905M US$ -
20175 329M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures276.3M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 574 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown3 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried220.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers21.338per 1000 pop.2017
Computers62.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.1years2013
Graduates10 236units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level15 035units2013
Teachers, secondary level16 539units2013
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.8per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.4per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV22.8% of adults2017
HIV, total21.2%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.54% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking64.08%2016
Access to electricity62.824%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing6.1%2015-16
education4.7%2015-16
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