Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 51 209 sq km
Population: 3 404 113 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 66.48 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 45° - 43° N; long. 16° - 20° E
Capital: Sarajevo (capital) 274 970 inhab. (2020); Sarajevo 559 427 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: convertible mark (100 fenings), pegged to the euro
Human development index: 0.78 (rank: 73)
Presidency of the Republic: members elected on 7 October 2018: Šefik Džaferović (Bosniak), Željko Komšić (Croat), Milorad Dodik (Serb)
Prime Minister: Zoran Tegeltija (SNSD), since 23 December 2019; High Representative of the international community: Christian Schmidt (Germany), since 1 August 2021
House of Representatives: seats (June 2021 update): SDA (Party of Democratic Action, Bosniak), 9; SNSD (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats, Serb), 6; HDZ BiH (Croatian Democratic Union of BiH), 5; SDP BiH (Social Democratic Party, Bosniak), 4; SDS (Serb Democratic Party), 4; Democratic Front (Bosnian and Croatian), 4; others, 10
Internet: www.bhas.gov.ba (Agency for statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC observer, OSCE, UN, WTO observer

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Bosna i Hercegovina
Useful information

International license plate code BiH
International dialling code 00387
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ba

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Sarajevo 10.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sarajevo -0.5/19.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sarajevo 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sarajevo 935
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sarajevo 117

Politics and current affairs

In February 2021, the country started its vaccination campaign, providing a mix of vaccines, some purchased (Sputnik V from Russia), some supplied by the COVAX programme and 10 000 doses donated by Serbia.
On 23 December 2020, a fire destroyed the Lipa camp, on the border with Croatia, which hosts hundreds of refugees. The country received humanitarian aid, also from the EU, to rebuild the camp.

Geography.
It is bordered by Croatia to the north and west, by Serbia to the east and by Croatia and Montenegro to the south. The country is predominantly mountainous (the Dinaric Alps) where several peaks are over 2000 m high (Pločno, Vranica and Maglić). In the north the land slopes down towards the River Sava, with its affluents: the Una, the Vrbas, the Bosna and the Drina. Only the Neretva flows into the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. The mountains in the south consist of karst uplands broken up by many flat polje. It has a continental climate with Mediterranean influences.

Government


Formerly part of the Socialist Federal Rep. of Yugoslavia (1945-91), Bosnia declared independence on 9 January 1992. In the same year, fierce civil war broke out between the various ethnic groups – Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Croats and Serbs –, which ended only thanks to the intervention of UN and NATO forces. On 21 November 1995, the Dayton Agreement sanctioned the integrity and sovereignty of the republic, albeit divided into two parts, each one with its own Parliament and government: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH, Bosniak-Croat, 51% of the country, subdivided into 10 administrative cantons and 74 municipalities) and the Republika Srpska (RS, 49% of the country, subdivided into 63 municipalities). In addition, it was established the separate district of Brčko, an autonomous administrative unit directly under sovereignty of the central state government.
The Dayton Agreement also established the role of the High Representative of the international community, in charge of overseeing the peace process and stabilization of the country.
The central presidency of the republic is shared by three members elected for four years representing the three ethnic communities (Bosniak, Serb and Croat); each of the three members takes turns to be president for eight months. Central Parliament is formed by the House of Representatives (42 members elected directly, two-thirds of whom are Bosniaks and Croats and one-third of whom are Serbs), based in Sarajevo, and by the House of Peoples (15 members: 5 per ethnic group), based in Lukavica. The central executive is formed by a Council of Ministers, appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the House of Representatives. The head of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) is a President appointed by a bicameral Parliament consisting of the House of Representatives (98 members) and the House of Peoples (58 members). The head of the Republika Srpska (RS) is a directly elected President; the unicameral Parliament is represented by the National Assembly (83 members). Since 2004 there has been an EU military contingent (the EUFOR-Althea mission).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure0.9% of GDP2019
Military personnel10 500units2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes676.4per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides1$per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sarajevo274 970inhab.2020
Banja Luka184 843inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sarajevo559 427inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In 2013 the first census was carried out after the conflict. The final report, published in 2016, showed growth among the Bosniaks, which represent half of the total population.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate7.92019
Death rate10.92019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bosniak50.1%2013
Serb30.8%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim50.7%2013
Orthodox30.7%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bosnian (official)
Croatian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years13.2%2020
15-29 years17.1%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.08index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)105.39index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 297 874units2020
Active population, Females39.2%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate16.9%2020
Unemployment rate, Females44.7%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses14 474.8M LCU2020
Revenues14 430.7M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture11.979%2020
industry33.358%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.28%2020
industry28.006%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation6.172BN LCU2020
International reserves8 707.118M US$2020
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Agriculture


The crisis caused a 5.5% slump in the economy in 2020. A growth of 3.5% is expected in 2021.
Agriculture is not very productive, whereas sheep farming and forest management for timber are important to the economy. The only mineral resources are coal and iron ore. There are iron and steel works, metalworking plants, engineering, electronic and timber companies, cement, textile, food-processing plants, chemical factories and petrochemical industries (refinery in Brod). The Brčko district, thanks to its self-governing status, is a pilot area for attracting international investments. The main trading partners are Germany, Croatia, Italy and Serbia.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land22.051%2018
forests42.733%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley74.4621000 t2019
cereals, total1 666.1921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes381.3081000 t2019
roots and tubers, total381.3081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages71.7731000 t2019
carrots and turnips10.9061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11.1141000 t2019
beans, green1.6051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes39.2891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives0.7761000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed8.6571000 t2019
soybeans23.7531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper30$1000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.3421000 t2019
tobacco1.4331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples98.2651000 t2019
apricots1.0341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0841000 t2019
walnuts3.4091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.2251000 t2019
lemons0.0151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.2531000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley20.9081000 ha2019
maize191.841000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes34.2391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.5821000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry6.9911000 ha2019
beans, green0.4961000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape4.3531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.4371000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed3.5061000 ha2019
soybeans9.0261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.0161000 ha2019
tobacco1.1271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples30.9341000 ha2019
apricots0.6431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3121000 ha2019
walnuts2.1131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.2741000 ha2019
lemons0.0021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.3041000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 458 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle429.6531000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes429.6531000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs543.3571000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 012.6481000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats72.3621000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total14.2921000 heads2019
horses14.2921000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds16 8561000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.3591000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.11000 t2019
cheese4.11000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes578.6t2019
marine fishes180.6t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal4 360.51000 t2019
coal, total6 557.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2501000 t2019
bauxite7001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite0.031000 t2014
bentonite94.61000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite58.21000 t2018
granite4.71000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9 976.22M kWh2019
- hydro6 020.19M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 1351000 kW2018
- hydro2 0901000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation18 208.28M kWh2018
total installed capacity4 723.251000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium55$1000 t2019
coke, metall.907.11000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes5 678no.2016
tractors610no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers4 058no.2016
fridges35 084no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1461000 t2018
petrol177.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1$1000 t2010
caustic soda12$1000 t2009
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics5.1M m²2016
cotton yarn5.061000 t2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear6 147 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley96.961000 t2018
fish, frozen0.471000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes556M units2019
cigars and cigarettes556M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp78$1000 t2019
other paper1601000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement954.51000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production195.999M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production478.506M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures73.157% of goods exports2019
fuels8.092% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany952M US$2020
Croatia795M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany1 212M US$2020
Italy1 139M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 152M US$ -
20196 578M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20209 873M US$ -
201911 159M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures385M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 198 000units2019
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Communications


Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2003
Civil aviation, passengers carried5.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers225.958per 1000 pop.2019
Computers64$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.4years2014
Graduates18 580units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level157 304units2019
Students, secondary level240 189units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending19.3% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.49per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians2.16per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
Tuberculosis27$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums29$units2017
Museums, visitors533 214units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.19% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking46.3%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.8%2020
education1.4%2020
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