Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 51 209 sq km
Population: 3 447 007 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 67.31 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 45° - 43° N; long. 16° - 20° E
Capital: Sarajevo (capital) 275 097 inhab. (2016); Sarajevo 395 133 inhab. (2013), urban agglomeration
Currency: convertible mark (100 fenings), pegged to the euro
Human development index: 0.75 (rank: 81)
Presidency of the Republic: members elected on 12 October 2014: Bakir Izetbegović (Bosniak), Dragan Čović (Croat), Mladen Ivanić (Serb)
Prime Minister: Denis Zvizdić (SDA), since 11 February 2015; High Representative of the international community: Valentin Inzko (Austria), since 26 March 2009
House of Representatives: seats (in July 2018): SDA (Party of Democratic action, Bosnian), 6; SNSD (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats, Serb), 6; Democratic Front (Bosnian), 5; HDZ BiH (Croatian Democratic Union of BiH), 5; SDS (Serb Democratic Party), 5; SBB BiH (Union for a Better Future in BiH), 4; SDP BiH (Social Democratic Party, Bosnian), 3; others, 9
Internet: www.bhas.ba (Agency for statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC observer, OSCE, UN, WTO observer

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Bosna i Hercegovina
Useful information

International license plate code BiH
International dialling code 00387
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ba

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Sarajevo 10.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sarajevo -0.5/19.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sarajevo 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sarajevo 935
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sarajevo 117

Politics and current affairs

The elections for President of the Republic and the House of Representatives, planned for 7 October 2018, have increased ethnic tensions, particularly with regard to voting laws. There are also increasing difficulties in managing migrants stuck in the country during their journey to Europe.

Geography.
It is bordered by Croatia to the north and west, by Serbia to the east and by Croatia and Montenegro to the south. The country is predominantly mountainous (the Dinaric Alps) where several peaks are over 2000 m high (Pločno, Vranica and Maglić). In the north the land slopes down towards the River Sava, with its affluents: the Una, the Vrbas, the Bosna and the Drina. Only the Neretva flows into the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. The mountains in the south consist of karst uplands broken up by many flat polje. It has a continental climate with Mediterranean influences.

Government


Formerly part of the Socialist Federal Rep. of Yugoslavia (1945-91), Bosnia declared independence on 9 January 1992. In the same year, fierce civil war broke out between the various ethnic groups – Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Croats and Serbs –, which ended only thanks to the intervention of UN and NATO forces. On 21 November 1995, the Dayton Agreement sanctioned the integrity and sovereignty of the republic, albeit divided into two parts, each one with its own Parliament and government: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH, Bosniak-Croat, 51% of the country, subdivided into 10 administrative cantons and 74 municipalities) and the Republika Srpska (RS, 49% of the country, subdivided into 63 municipalities). In addition, it was established the separate district of Brčko, an autonomous administrative unit directly under sovereignty of the central state government.
The Dayton Agreement also established the role of the High Representative of the international community, in charge of overseeing the peace process and stabilization of the country, whose powers are then transferred to local authorities.
The central presidency of the republic is shared by three members elected for four years representing the three ethnic communities (Bosniak, Serb and Croat); each of the three members takes turns to be president for eight months. Central Parliament is formed by the House of Representatives (42 members elected directly, two-thirds of whom are Bosniaks and Croats and one-third of whom are Serbs), based in Sarajevo, and by the House of Peoples (15 members: 5 per ethnic group), based in Lukavica. The central executive is formed by a Council of Ministers, appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the House of Representatives. The head of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) is a President appointed by a bicameral Parliament consisting of the House of Representatives (98 members) and the House of Peoples (58 members). The head of the Republika Srpska (RS) is a directly elected President; the unicameral Parliament is represented by the National Assembly (83 members).
Since 2004 there has been an EU military contingent (the EUFOR-Althea mission) supported by a police mission (EUPM) with the task of maintaining public order.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1% of GDP2016
Military personnel10 500units2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes724.9per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sarajevo275 097inhab.2016
Banja Luka182 848inhab.2016
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sarajevo395 133inhab.2013
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In 2013 the first census was carried out after the conflict. The final report, published in 2016, showed growth among the Bosniaks, which represent half of the total population.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.82016
Death rate10.62016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bosniak50.1%2013
Serb30.8%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim50.7%2013
Orthodox30.7%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bosnian (official)
Croatian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years13.3%2017
15-29 years18.8%2017


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.08index2016
Balance of trade-4 000M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 579 000units2015
Active population, Females51.2%2015
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate25.6%2017
Unemployment rate, Females56.9%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses10 382.1M LCU2016
Revenues11 084.3M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.9%2017
industry29.5%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.5%2016
industry27.2%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.3BN LCU2017
International reserves6 473.7M US$2017
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Agriculture


Economic growth should accelerate to 4% in 2018-19. International interest in the energy sector is on the rise, with investments and direct funding for wind energy.
Agriculture is not very productive, whereas sheep farming and forest management for timber are important to the economy. The only mineral resources are coal (at Zenica, Kakanj and Banovići) and iron ore (at Ljubija and Vareš). There are iron and steel works (at Zenica and Vareš), metalworking plants (at Travnik), engineering, electronic and timber companies (at Sarajevo and Banja Luka), cement, textile, food-processing plants, chemical factories (at Tuzla) and petrochemical industries (refineries in Brod and Modriča). The Brčko district, thanks to its self-governing status, is a pilot area for attracting international investments. The main trading partners are Germany, Croatia, Italy and Serbia.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land22.15%2015
forests42.67%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley77.2941000 t2016
cereals, total1 657.5561000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes417.9761000 t2016
roots and tubers, total417.9761000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages80.3981000 t2016
carrots and turnips17.5751000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11.1431000 t2016
beans, green2.1041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes36.9041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives0.3591000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed4.4431000 t2016
soybeans18.6621000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper301000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet1.1571000 t2016
tobacco2.3151000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples69.0621000 t2016
apricots11000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0591000 t2016
walnuts3.9051000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.211000 t2016
lemons0.0181000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.051000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.2031000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley25.6311000 ha2016
maize191.7191000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes34.931000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.8681000 ha2016
carrots and turnips1.7231000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry7.4261000 ha2016
beans, green0.551000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape7.8421000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.2541000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed1.6691000 ha2016
soybeans7.0221000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.0641000 ha2016
tobacco1.4651000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples20.7631000 ha2016
apricots0.5641000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.2261000 ha2016
walnuts2.511000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.2811000 ha2016
lemons0.0031000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.31000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 169 1202016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle455.1911000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes455.1911000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes131000 heads2008
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs544.8931000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 015.5761000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats74.7121000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total16.2881000 heads2016
horses16.2881000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds20 2321000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.6781000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.2431000 t2014
cheese5.5921000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs0t2015
freshwater fishes1 295t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 9351000 t2015
coal, total6 047.11000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2511000 t2015
bauxite8001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite0.031000 t2014
bentonite67.31000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite38.21000 t2015
granite2.71000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9 473.32M kWh2015
- hydro5 495M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 0481000 kW2015
- thermal1 7651000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation14 969.32M kWh2015
total installed capacity4 2431000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium1001000 t2015
coke, metall.911.51000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes5 956no.2014
cars3 970no.2008
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers6 614no.2014
fridges41 282no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1621000 t2015
petrol177.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia11000 t2010
caustic soda121000 t2009
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics6.4M m²2014
cotton yarn6.11000 t2014
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear6 224 000pairs2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley79.51000 t2014
fish, frozen0.451000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes2 594.7M units2014
cigars and cigarettes2 594.7M units2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp801000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp801000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8081000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production33.4M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production244.8M US$2011
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures67.227% of goods exports2016
food products9.347% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany916M US$2017
Croatia736M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany1 211M US$2017
Italy1 187M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20176 300M US$ -
20165 326.501M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201710 300M US$ -
20169 140.113M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures214M US$2016
Number of arrivals777 000units2016
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Communications


Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2003
Civil aviation, passengers carried7.11000 units2015
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers189.240per 1000 pop.2017
Computers64per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.4years2014
Graduates19 895units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level9 346units2016
Teachers, secondary level27 028units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.5per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis32per 100 000 pop.2016
Tuberculosis (prevalence)64per 100 000 pop.2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.22% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking63.38%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.6%2016
education1.3%2016
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