Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 51 209 sq km
Population: 3 427 365 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 66.93 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 45° - 43° N; long. 16° - 20° E
Capital: Sarajevo (capital) 274 889 inhab. (2018); Sarajevo 557 970 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: convertible mark (100 fenings), pegged to the euro
Human development index: 0.768 (rank: 77)
Presidency of the Republic: members elected on 7 October 2018: Šefik Džaferović (Bosniak), Željko Komšić (Croat), Milorad Dodik (Serb)
Prime Minister: Denis Zvizdić (SDA), since 11 February 2015; High Representative of the international community: Valentin Inzko (Austria), since 26 March 2009
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 7 October 2018: SDA (Party of Democratic Action, Bosniak), 9; SNSD (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats, Serb), 6; HDZ BiH (Croatian Democratic Union of BiH), 5; SDP BiH (Social Democratic Party, Bosniak), 5; SDS (Serb Democratic Party), 4; Democratic Front (Bosnian and Croatian), 3; others, 10
Internet: www.bhas.ba (Agency for statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC observer, OSCE, UN, WTO observer

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Bosna i Hercegovina
Useful information

International license plate code BiH
International dialling code 00387
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ba

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Sarajevo 10.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sarajevo -0.5/19.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sarajevo 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sarajevo 935
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sarajevo 117

Politics and current affairs

The vote on 7 October 2018 resulted in the election of the tripartite presidency led by Šefik Džaferović (a Bosnian in favour of joining the EU and NATO), Željko Komšić (a moderate Croat who opposes the nationalists among his own ethnic group) and Milorad Dodik (a Russia-leaning Serb who was once in favour of merging with Serbia and now opposed to joining NATO). The divisions have impeded a new government from being formed.

Geography.
It is bordered by Croatia to the north and west, by Serbia to the east and by Croatia and Montenegro to the south. The country is predominantly mountainous (the Dinaric Alps) where several peaks are over 2000 m high (Pločno, Vranica and Maglić). In the north the land slopes down towards the River Sava, with its affluents: the Una, the Vrbas, the Bosna and the Drina. Only the Neretva flows into the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. The mountains in the south consist of karst uplands broken up by many flat polje. It has a continental climate with Mediterranean influences.

Government


Formerly part of the Socialist Federal Rep. of Yugoslavia (1945-91), Bosnia declared independence on 9 January 1992. In the same year, fierce civil war broke out between the various ethnic groups – Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Croats and Serbs –, which ended only thanks to the intervention of UN and NATO forces. On 21 November 1995, the Dayton Agreement sanctioned the integrity and sovereignty of the republic, albeit divided into two parts, each one with its own Parliament and government: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH, Bosniak-Croat, 51% of the country, subdivided into 10 administrative cantons and 74 municipalities) and the Republika Srpska (RS, 49% of the country, subdivided into 63 municipalities). In addition, it was established the separate district of Brčko, an autonomous administrative unit directly under sovereignty of the central state government.
The Dayton Agreement also established the role of the High Representative of the international community, in charge of overseeing the peace process and stabilization of the country.
The central presidency of the republic is shared by three members elected for four years representing the three ethnic communities (Bosniak, Serb and Croat); each of the three members takes turns to be president for eight months. Central Parliament is formed by the House of Representatives (42 members elected directly, two-thirds of whom are Bosniaks and Croats and one-third of whom are Serbs), based in Sarajevo, and by the House of Peoples (15 members: 5 per ethnic group), based in Lukavica. The central executive is formed by a Council of Ministers, appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the House of Representatives. The head of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) is a President appointed by a bicameral Parliament consisting of the House of Representatives (98 members) and the House of Peoples (58 members). The head of the Republika Srpska (RS) is a directly elected President; the unicameral Parliament is represented by the National Assembly (83 members). Since 2004 there has been an EU military contingent (the EUFOR-Althea mission).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure0.9% of GDP2017
Military personnel10 500units2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes724.9per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2016
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sarajevo274 889inhab.2018
Banja Luka184 257inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sarajevo557 970inhab.2018
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

In 2013 the first census was carried out after the conflict. The final report, published in 2016, showed growth among the Bosniaks, which represent half of the total population.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.22017
Death rate11.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bosniak50.1%2013
Serb30.8%2013


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim50.7%2013
Orthodox30.7%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bosnian (official)
Croatian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years13.2%2018
15-29 years18.2%2018


TOP

Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)118.08index2016
Balance of trade-4 500M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 408 075units2018
Active population, Females39%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate20.8%2018
Unemployment rate, Females44.8%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses12 738.3M LCU2018
Revenues14 402.3M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture16.5%2018
industry29.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7%2018
industry27.7%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.75BN LCU2018
International reserves6 808.4M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture


Economic growth should be around 3% in 2019-20. International interest in the energy sector is on the rise, with investments and direct funding for wind energy.
Agriculture is not very productive, whereas sheep farming and forest management for timber are important to the economy. The only mineral resources are coal and iron ore. There are iron and steel works, metalworking plants, engineering, electronic and timber companies, cement, textile, food-processing plants, chemical factories and petrochemical industries (refinery in Brod). The Brčko district, thanks to its self-governing status, is a pilot area for attracting international investments. The main trading partners are Germany, Croatia, Italy and Serbia.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land22.15%2015
forests42.67%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley76.3241000 t2017
cereals, total1 167.0051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes337.1371000 t2017
roots and tubers, total337.1371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages59.3711000 t2017
carrots and turnips11.2621000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry7.8511000 t2017
beans, green1.4851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes28.0131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives0.2811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed6.3751000 t2017
soybeans11.741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper301000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet1.1281000 t2017
tobacco1.761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples52.2521000 t2017
apricots1.2031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0471000 t2017
walnuts1.9331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.1511000 t2017
lemons0.0051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.0531000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.21000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley21.0221000 ha2017
maize194.2661000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes34.9411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.7411000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.5411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry7.1331000 ha2017
beans, green0.5771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape5.7811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive0.1991000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2.2211000 ha2017
soybeans7.5071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.061000 ha2017
tobacco1.4961000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples15.9141000 ha2017
apricots0.7061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.1771000 ha2017
walnuts1.2141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.2711000 ha2017
lemons0.0011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.3031000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber3 967 3002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle444.5221000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes444.5221000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes131000 heads2008
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs548.0111000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 016.7351000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats73.2871000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total15.5991000 heads2017
horses15.5991000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds16 4501000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.6781000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.2431000 t2014
cheese5.5921000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs0t2015
freshwater fishes844.5t2017
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal4 583.71000 t2017
coal, total6 5021000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina187.51000 t2016
bauxite641.21000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite0.031000 t2014
bentonite102.91000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite47.71000 t2016
granite3.91000 t2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal11 375.88M kWh2016
- hydro5 585M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 1701000 kW2016
- thermal2 0651000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation16 985.88M kWh2016
total installed capacity4 6761000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium901000 t2017
coke, metall.880.41000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes5 678no.2016
tractors610no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers4 058no.2016
fridges41 282no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1521000 t2016
petrol177.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia11000 t2010
caustic soda121000 t2009
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics5.1M m²2016
cotton yarn5.061000 t2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear6 383 000pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley79.51000 t2014
fish, frozen0.471000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 455M units2017
cigars and cigarettes1 455M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp701000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp701000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement910.21000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production145.9M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production416.6M US$2016
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures67.377% of goods exports2017
food products8.651% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany1 052M US$2018
Croatia883M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany1 387M US$2018
Italy1 310M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20187 500M US$ -
20176 371M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201812 000M US$ -
201710 480M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures257M US$2017
Number of arrivals923 000units2017
TOP

Communications


Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2003
Civil aviation, passengers carried7.11000 units2015
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers189.240per 1000 pop.2017
Computers64per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.4years2014
Graduates19 895units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level9 346units2016
Teachers, secondary level27 028units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending19.7% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.5per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis27per 100 000 pop.2017
Tuberculosis (prevalence)64per 100 000 pop.2014
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums29units2017
Museums, visitors533 214units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.2% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking63.38%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.5%2017
education1.3%2017
TOP