Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 098 581 sq km
Population: 11 633 371 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 10.59 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 23° S; long. 70° - 57° W
Capital: Sucre (legal capital) 238 798 inhab. (2012); ; La Paz (seat of government) 758 845 inhab. (2012); La Paz 1 814 087 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: boliviano (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.718 (rank: 107)
President and head of government: Luis Arce Catacora (Movement Towards Socialism), elected 18 October 2020, in office since 8 November 2020
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 18 October 2020: MAS (Movement Towards Socialism), 75; CC (Civic Community, liberal democrat alliance), 39; Creemos (conservative alliance), 16
Internet: www.ine.gob.bo (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of CAN, Mercosur, OAS, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Bolivia

Bolivia, Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Useful information

International license plate code BOL
International dialling code 00591
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission and recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .bo

GMT  -4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Sucre 14.8; La Paz 11.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sucre 15.5/12.5; La Paz 12.5/9
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sucre 8.5/6.5; La Paz 10/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sucre 704; La Paz 507
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sucre 91; La Paz 107

Politics and current affairs

At the general elections on 18 October 2020, Luis Arce, MAS candidate for the presidency, won the first ballot (55.1% of the vote), while his party obtained an absolute majority in parliament. The arrest warrant for MAS leader E. Morales, who resigned as president (10 September 2019) and left the country, was withdrawn and Morales returned to Bolivia (9 November 2020).

Geography.
Bolivia is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, by Paraguay to the south-east, by Argentina to the south, and by Chile and Peru to the west. The west of the country comprises the Altiplano (the highland plateau), which includes some of the highest peaks in the Andes (Mount Sajama, 6542 m; Mount Illimani, 6402 m; Mount Illampu, 6421 m), with numerous valleys and lakes – some of which are salt lakes – and a dry climate. The east side of the Andes becomes more and more humid as it descends towards the lowland plains, where forests alternate with steppe and cultivated land. The rivers flow into the River Amazon or the River Paraguay. On 24 April 2013, the country lodged a petition with the International Court of Justice to obtain from Chile access to the Pacific Ocean, lost during the 1879-83 war.

Government


Independent from Spain since 6 August 1825, Bolivia has had a turbulent political and institutional history due to recurring authoritarian coups implemented by the military. Government returned permanently to civilian hands in 1985, after fifteen years of military regime imposed by General Hugo Bánzer Suárez. Juan Evo Morales Ayma, leader of the Movement for Socialism (MAS), was President from 2006 to 2019. He stepped down following violent protests after elections that were contested. According to the Constitution of 2009, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five-years, as is the bicameral Parliament (a Chamber of Deputies of 130 members and a Chamber of Senators of 36 members). The 2009 Constitution reinforced the role of the state in the economy and provided for redistribution of resources in favour of the poorer areas. The Constitution also grants considerable autonomy to the 36 indigenous communities.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force19$%2015
Army66.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes417.7per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides15.1per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Santa Cruz de la Sierra1 442 396inhab.2012
El Alto846 880inhab.2012
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
La Paz1 814 087inhab.2018
Santa Cruz de la Sierra1 631 809inhab.2012
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Many settlements are situated at between 2500 m and 4000 m above sea-level. There is a large native population.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate21.4552019
Death rate6.7622019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other63$%2012
Quechua18.3%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic76.8%2012
Protestant16$%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish (official)
36 indigenous languages (among them: Aymará, Guaraní, Quechua) (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years29.9%2020
15-29 years27.8%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Difficulties in economic growth, which was already reeling from the falling prices of mining products, especially hydrocarbons, were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Support was given to the weaker members of society, but the funds accumulated during years of economic growth have already been eroded and the high public debt and low currency reserves limit the government’s action.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)146.56index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)109.87index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 430 790units2020
Active population, Females44.2%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females48.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses92 820.1M LCU2020
Revenues59 746.2M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29.949%2020
industry18.008%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture13.864%2019
industry28.599%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation53.616BN LCU2020
International reserves5 247.235M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In the Andes, subsistence farming predominates (potatoes and cereals) and coca is grown.
According to a treaty signed in 2004 by the government and the coca-farmers, each family may grow one cato (1600 m²) of coca. The Constitution approved in 2009 contains measures that aim to gradually reduce the number of large near-feudal farm estates. In the area of the yungas (at an altitude of between 1500 and 2500 m), on the outer slopes of the Cordillera, crops include bananas, vegetables, coffee and cocoa. In the eastern part of Bolivia below the mountains (Santa Cruz) commercial crops predominate (soybeans, sugar cane, cotton). The cultivation of soya is increasing. A large amount of rubber is produced in the forests of Beni and Santa Cruz. Sheep, cattle, llama and alpaca are farmed on the highland plateau.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.364%2018
forests47.312%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley47.9511000 t2019
cereals, total2 912.0841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava203.3271000 t2019
potatoes1 256.5841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.6931000 t2019
carrots and turnips69.2621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry107.551000 t2019
beans, green1.6921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes23.5491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts28.2781000 t2019
sesame seed15.8421000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa5.8351000 t2019
coffee24.8411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane9 558.4721000 t2019
tobacco1.2021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton118.791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.9311000 t2019
cherries1.0021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits470.0951000 t2019
grapefruits3.8131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados12.691000 t2019
bananas301.2551000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley53.6161000 ha2019
maize468.081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava30.1121000 ha2019
potatoes175.7081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.6271000 ha2019
carrots and turnips5.1551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry86.71000 ha2019
beans, green0.5311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape3.3271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts19.1171000 ha2019
sesame seed24.3331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa10.3871000 ha2019
coffee25.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane174.631000 ha2019
tobacco1.1711000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton134.8121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.2651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.7531000 ha2019
cherries0.4781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits55.1671000 ha2019
grapefruits0.4411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.3081000 ha2019
bananas20.1031000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber5 101t2019
timber4 017 2122019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle9 741.4741000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes9 741.4741000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 103.8981000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7 548.431000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 249.0011000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses634.9911000 heads2019
asses and mules717.7081000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
llamas and alpacas3 036.6611000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds232 1031000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.6441000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.4781000 t2018
cheese10.4221000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes9 825t2019
total catch11 425t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
In 2006, the substantial hydrocarbon resources were nationalized, like the YPFB, the country’s main company in the sector. The largest fields are Bermejo and Caranda, near Santa Cruz, where some of the petroleum is also refined; the rest is conveyed through oil pipelines (the main one between Santa Cruz-Sica and Arica is 971 km long) to the refineries at Sucre and Cochabamba. The natural gas extracted at Colpa, Río Grande and Tita, near Santa Cruz is partly piped to Brazil along a pipeline. The most important mineral deposits are tin (at Oruro and Potosí), bismuth, lithium (at the Uyuni salt flats), lead (at Tupiza-Villazón), zinc (at Potosí, Pulacayo-Huanchaca and Matilde), tungsten (at Atocha and the Cordillera Quimza Cruz). Large quantities of salt are produced from the vast salt lake of Salar de Uyuni. The electricity requirement is mainly covered by thermal (natural gas) and hydro-electric power plants.
Industry is not very highly developed but includes oil refineries, metal-working plants (at Viacha and Sucre), textiles (at La Paz, Oruro and Santa Cruz), food-processing plants (at Cochabamba and Santa Cruz), pharmaceuticals (at Cochabamba and La Paz), tobacco (at La Paz, Sucre and Cocha­bamba), sugar and cement.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas14 409.7M m³2020
oil, crude1 845.41000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony3$1000 t2020
copper2.91000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite37$1000 t2019
boron2001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
amethyst152 469kg2016
gold29 976kg2018
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic0.011000 t2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 990.62M kWh2019
- hydro3 220.47M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 8601000 kW2018
- hydro7351000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation9 739.09M kWh2019
total installed capacity2 704.921000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.31000 t2016
bismuth0.011000 t2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1$1000 t2018
petrol1 116.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers133.11000 t2019
tyres27 004no.2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m1.038M m2012
wool yarn0.3971000 t2012
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear5 006 538pairs2012
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4651000 t2018
cottonseed oil10.891000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8.5M units2012
cigars and cigarettes8.5M units2012
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 6501000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production270.548M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production1 587.076M US$2014
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) natural gas 2 625, zinc ores 1 352, gold and silver 1 109, precious minerals and metals 565, residues and wastes of food industry 365, refined tin 326, lead ores 246, fruit and vegetables 216

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels40.253% of goods exports2018
ores and metals36.313% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil1 117M US$2020
Argentina1 028M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 584M US$2020
Brazil1 199M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 015M US$ -
20198 757M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 080M US$ -
20199 784M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 065M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 239 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 900 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried4 0671000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers64.872per 1000 pop.2019
Computers24$per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education (from 6 to 14 years of age) is compulsory and free; secondary education (four years) is optional.


Social security and health.
In 2010, a new law was passed lowering the age of retirement to 58 (reduced to 55 for women with at least three children).

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.7years2007
Gradautes, percentage7.5%2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level1 379 099units2018
Students, secondary level1 233 738units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending12.5% of total expenses2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.29per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1.59per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2019
HIV, total0.05%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.16% of GDP2009
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking85.5%2019
Access to electricity96.303%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food28.6%2000
housing, energy10.3%2000
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