Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 098 581 sq km
Population: 11 145 770 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 10.15 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 23° S; long. 70° - 57° W
Capital: Sucre (legal capital) 238 798 inhab. (2012); ; La Paz (seat of government) 758 845 inhab. (2012); La Paz 1 680 520 inhab. (2012), urban agglomeration
Currency: boliviano (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.674 (rank: 118)
President and head of government: Evo Morales (MAS), elected 18 December 2005, last re-elected 12 October 2014
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 12 October 2014: MAS (Movement Towards Socialism), 88; UD (Democrat Unity, conservative coalition formed by the National Unity Front and the Social Democrat Movement), 32; PDC (Christian Democratic Party), 10
Internet: www.ine.gob.bo (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of CAN, Mercosur, OAS, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Bolivia

Bolivia, Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Useful information

International license plate code BOL
International dialling code 00591
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission and recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .bo

GMT  -4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Sucre 14.8; La Paz 11.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sucre 15.5/12.5; La Paz 12.5/9
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sucre 8.5/6.5; La Paz 10/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sucre 704; La Paz 507
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sucre 91; La Paz 107

Politics and current affairs

On 28 November 2017, the Constitutional Tribunal accepted the appeal by the MAS party, giving E. Morales the chance to run again as a candidate in the 2019 elections, even though the referendum on 21 February 2016 invalidated the amendment to the constitution that would have allowed running for an additional term.

Geography.
Bolivia is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, by Paraguay to the south-east, by Argentina to the south, and by Chile and Peru to the west. The west of the country comprises the Altipiano (the highland plateau), which includes some of the highest peaks in the Andes (Mount Sajama, 6542 m; Mount Illimani, 6402 m; Mount Illampu, 6421 m), with numerous valleys and lakes – some of which are salt lakes – and a dry climate. The east side of the Andes becomes more and more humid as it descends towards the lowland plains, where forests alternate with steppe and cultivated land. The rivers flow into the River Amazon or the River Paraguay. On 24 April 2013, the country lodged a petition with the International Court of Justice to obtain from Chile access to the Pacific Ocean, lost during the 1879-83 war.

Government


Independent from Spain since 6 August 1825, Bolivia has had a turbulent political and institutional history due to recurring authoritarian coups implemented by the military. Government returned permanently to civilian hands in 1985, after fifteen years of military regime imposed by General Hugo Bánzer Suárez.
According to the Constitution of 2009, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage. The bicameral Parliament (a Chamber of Deputies of 130 members and a Chamber of Senators of 36 members) is elected with a five-year mandate.
The 2009 Constitution reinforced the role of the state in the economy and provided for redistribution of resources in favour of the poorer areas. The Constitution also grants considerable autonomy to the 36 indigenous communities.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force19%2015
Army66.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes646.2per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides22.2per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Santa Cruz de la Sierra1 442 396inhab.2012
El Alto846 880inhab.2012
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
La Paz1 680 520inhab.2012
Santa Cruz de la Sierra1 631 809inhab.2012
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Many settlements are situated at between 2500 m and 4000 m above sea-level. There is a large native population.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.32016
Death rate7.32016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other63%2012
Quechua18.3%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic79%2010
Protestant13.7%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish (official)
36 indigenous languages (among them: Aymará, Guaraní, Quechua) (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years31.9%2017
15-29 years28.3%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Economic growth has felt the effects of the drop in the prices of mining products, particularly hydrocarbons, to which it is strictly tied. To compensate, public investments were made, financed in part with funds accumulated during years with a positive trend, which increased the debt; the government’s economic plan also includes measures that favour foreign investments.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)146.56index2016
Balance of trade-1 543M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 093 279units2017
Active population, Females41.2%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.2%2017
Unemployment rate, Females50%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses92 476M LCU2015
Revenues82 317M LCU2015
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27%2017
industry22.4%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.9%2016
industry29.3%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation46.3BN LCU2017
International reserves10 246M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In the Andes, subsistence farming predominates (potatoes and cereals) and coca is grown.
According to a treaty signed in 2004 by the government and the coca-farmers, each family may grow one cato (1600 m²) of coca. The Constitution approved in 2009 contains measures that aim to gradually reduce the number of large near-feudal farm estates. In the area of the yungas (at an altitude of between 1500 and 2500 m), on the outer slopes of the Cordillera, crops include bananas, vegetables, coffee and cocoa. In the eastern part of Bolivia below the mountains (Santa Cruz) commercial crops predominate (soybeans, sugar cane, cotton). The cultivation of soya is increasing. A large amount of rubber is produced in the forests of Beni and Santa Cruz. Sheep, cattle, llama and alpaca are farmed on the highland plateau.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.34%2015
forests50.56%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley46.0021000 t2016
cereals, total2 668.5361000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava199.9651000 t2016
potatoes1 073.7441000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3.9171000 t2016
carrots and turnips42.3791000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry94.6351000 t2016
beans, green1.4621000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes21.1671000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts20.7881000 t2016
sesame seed12.5931000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa6.1431000 t2016
coffee21.4271000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6 910.8051000 t2016
tobacco1.221000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton122.2241000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0621000 t2013
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.5781000 t2016
cherries0.9221000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits446.2571000 t2016
grapefruits3.8011000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados12.4971000 t2016
bananas299.581000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley55.371000 ha2016
maize381.9371000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava29.4711000 ha2016
potatoes181.7081000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.4981000 ha2016
carrots and turnips3.6391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry75.3481000 ha2016
beans, green0.4881000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape3.0541000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts19.2071000 ha2016
sesame seed22.2611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa10.2921000 ha2016
coffee23.3061000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane152.3061000 ha2016
tobacco1.1981000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton141.5631000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.2641000 ha2013
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.6921000 ha2016
cherries0.4431000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits54.4131000 ha2016
grapefruits0.4351000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.2931000 ha2016
bananas19.8371000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber16 098t2016
timber3 408 2932016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle9 082.1931000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes9 082.1931000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 906.6961000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7 471.381000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 209.9681000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses635.1111000 heads2016
asses and mules717.7221000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
llamas and alpacas3 1001000 heads2012
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds202 3341000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.6861000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.381000 t2014
cheese11.3591000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes8 450t2016
total catch10 000t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
In 2006, the substantial hydrocarbon resources were nationalized, like the YPFB, the country’s main company in the sector. The largest fields are Bermejo and Caranda, near Santa Cruz, where some of the petroleum is also refined; the rest is conveyed through oil pipelines (the main one between Santa Cruz-Sica and Arica is 971 km long) to the refineries at Sucre and Cochabamba. The natural gas extracted at Colpa, Río Grande and Tita, near Santa Cruz is partly piped to Brazil along a pipeline.
The most important mineral deposits are tin (at Oruro and Potosí), bismuth, lithium (at the Uyuni salt flats), lead (at Tupiza-Villazón), zinc (at Potosí, Pulacayo-Huanchaca and Matilde), tungsten (at Atocha and the Cordillera Quimza Cruz). Large quantities of salt are produced from the vast salt lake of Salar de Uyuni. The main electrical power plants are located at Cochabamba (thermal power), on the River Beni and the River Negro (hydro-electric power).
Industry is not very highly developed but includes oil refineries, metal-working plants (at Viacha and Sucre), textiles (at La Paz, Oruro and Santa Cruz), food-processing plants (at Cochabamba and Santa Cruz), pharmaceuticals (at Cochabamba and La Paz), tobacco (at La Paz, Sucre and Cocha­bamba), sugar and cement.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas20 106M m³2017
oil, crude2 958.91000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony2.61000 t2017
bismuth0.011000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite46.81000 t2015
boron1501000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
amethyst189 000kg2015
gold13 000kg2015
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic0.041000 t2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 499M kWh2015
- hydro2 438M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 6991000 kW2015
- hydro4971000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation8 151M kWh2015
total installed capacity2 3621000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.371000 t2015
copper1.51000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen21000 t2015
petrol1 116.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tyres27 004no.2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m1.038M m2012
wool yarn0.3971000 t2012
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear5 006 538pairs2012
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley359.81000 t2014
cottonseed oil10.71000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8.5M units2012
cigars and cigarettes8.5M units2012
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 5001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production230.9M US$2010
food, beverages and tobacco production1 084.3M US$2010
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) natural gas 2 625, zinc ores 1 352, gold and silver 1 109, precious minerals and metals 565, residues and wastes of food industry 365, refined tin 326, lead ores 246, fruit and vegetables 216

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals36.549% of goods exports2016
fuels34.606% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil1 452M US$2017
Argentina1 231M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 027M US$2017
Brazil1 560M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20177 714.201M US$ -
20166 999.998M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20179 256.821M US$ -
20168 479.26M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures945M US$2016
Number of arrivals959 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 900 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 302.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers32.455per 1000 pop.2017
Computers24per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education (from 6 to 14 years of age) is compulsory and free; secondary education (four years) is optional.


Social security and health.
In 2010, a new law was passed lowering the age of retirement to 58 (reduced to 55 for women with at least three children).

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.7years2007
Gradautes, percentage7.5%2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level73 779units2016
Teachers, secondary level57 955units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending12.5% of total expenses2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.1per 1000 pop.2012
Physicians0.5per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2016
HIV, total0.05%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.16% of GDP2009
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking64%2016
Access to electricity93.039%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food28.6%2000
housing, energy10.3%2000
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