Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 098 581 sq km
Population: 11 307 314 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 10.29 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 10° - 23° S; long. 70° - 57° W
Capital: Sucre (legal capital) 238 798 inhab. (2012); ; La Paz (seat of government) 758 845 inhab. (2012); La Paz 1 814 087 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: boliviano (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.693 (rank: 118)
President and head of government: Evo Morales (MAS), elected 18 December 2005, last re-elected 12 October 2014
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 12 October 2014: MAS (Movement Towards Socialism), 88; UD (Democrat Unity, conservative coalition formed by the National Unity Front and the Social Democrat Movement), 32; PDC (Christian Democratic Party), 10
Internet: www.ine.gob.bo (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of CAN, Mercosur, OAS, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Bolivia

Bolivia, Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Useful information

International license plate code BOL
International dialling code 00591
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission and recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220/230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .bo

GMT  -4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Sucre 14.8; La Paz 11.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sucre 15.5/12.5; La Paz 12.5/9
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sucre 8.5/6.5; La Paz 10/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sucre 704; La Paz 507
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sucre 91; La Paz 107

Politics and current affairs

On 4 December 2018, the Supreme Electoral Tribunal authorized E. Morales to participate in the primary elections on 27 January 2019, in which he was confirmed as the presidential candidate for MAS; the elections are planned for October 2019.

Geography.
Bolivia is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, by Paraguay to the south-east, by Argentina to the south, and by Chile and Peru to the west. The west of the country comprises the Altiplano (the highland plateau), which includes some of the highest peaks in the Andes (Mount Sajama, 6542 m; Mount Illimani, 6402 m; Mount Illampu, 6421 m), with numerous valleys and lakes – some of which are salt lakes – and a dry climate. The east side of the Andes becomes more and more humid as it descends towards the lowland plains, where forests alternate with steppe and cultivated land.
The rivers flow into the River Amazon or the River Paraguay. On 24 April 2013, the country lodged a petition with the International Court of Justice to obtain from Chile access to the Pacific Ocean, lost during the 1879-83 war.

Government


Independent from Spain since 6 August 1825, Bolivia has had a turbulent political and institutional history due to recurring authoritarian coups implemented by the military. Government returned permanently to civilian hands in 1985, after fifteen years of military regime imposed by General Hugo Bánzer Suárez.
According to the Constitution of 2009, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage. The bicameral Parliament (a Chamber of Deputies of 130 members and a Chamber of Senators of 36 members) is elected with a five-year mandate.
The 2009 Constitution reinforced the role of the state in the economy and provided for redistribution of resources in favour of the poorer areas. The Constitution also grants considerable autonomy to the 36 indigenous communities.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force19%2015
Army66.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes417.7per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides15.1per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Santa Cruz de la Sierra1 442 396inhab.2012
El Alto846 880inhab.2012
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
La Paz1 814 087inhab.2018
Santa Cruz de la Sierra1 631 809inhab.2012
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Many settlements are situated at between 2500 m and 4000 m above sea-level. There is a large native population.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate232017
Death rate7.32017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other63%2012
Quechua18.3%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic76.8%2012
Protestant16%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish (official)
36 indigenous languages (among them: Aymará, Guaraní, Quechua) (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years31.3%2018
15-29 years28.2%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Economic growth has felt the effects of the drop in the prices of mining products, particularly hydrocarbons, to which it is strictly tied. To compensate, public investments were made, financed in part with funds accumulated during years with a positive trend, which increased the debt; the government’s economic plan also includes measures that favour foreign investments.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)146.56index2016
Balance of trade- 966.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 234 473units2018
Active population, Females42%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females51.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses94 700.5M LCU2018
Revenues78 074.2M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture28.1%2018
industry21.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture13.4%2017
industry30.4%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation48.95BN LCU2018
International reserves8 929.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In the Andes, subsistence farming predominates (potatoes and cereals) and coca is grown.
According to a treaty signed in 2004 by the government and the coca-farmers, each family may grow one cato (1600 m²) of coca. The Constitution approved in 2009 contains measures that aim to gradually reduce the number of large near-feudal farm estates. In the area of the yungas (at an altitude of between 1500 and 2500 m), on the outer slopes of the Cordillera, crops include bananas, vegetables, coffee and cocoa. In the eastern part of Bolivia below the mountains (Santa Cruz) commercial crops predominate (soybeans, sugar cane, cotton). The cultivation of soya is increasing. A large amount of rubber is produced in the forests of Beni and Santa Cruz. Sheep, cattle, llama and alpaca are farmed on the highland plateau.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.34%2015
forests50.56%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley45.4831000 t2017
cereals, total2 321.4091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava202.0791000 t2017
potatoes1 174.7441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages3.6991000 t2017
carrots and turnips40.2071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry104.8811000 t2017
beans, green1.3511000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes22.551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts25.3531000 t2017
sesame seed11.7031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa5.5181000 t2017
coffee21.1811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane8 049.4391000 t2017
tobacco1.1371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton124.7661000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.581000 t2017
cherries0.9431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits427.1951000 t2017
grapefruits3.7811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados12.5091000 t2017
bananas289.6361000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley53.0431000 ha2017
maize432.4531000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava29.5371000 ha2017
potatoes182.6751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.4861000 ha2017
carrots and turnips3.6271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry82.6031000 ha2017
beans, green0.4531000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape3.1871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts19.0521000 ha2017
sesame seed20.711000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa10.3421000 ha2017
coffee23.5731000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane151.9891000 ha2017
tobacco1.1461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton140.5011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.2651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.7321000 ha2017
cherries0.451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits54.2631000 ha2017
grapefruits0.4381000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.3051000 ha2017
bananas20.1911000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber16 389t2017
timber3 420 0422017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle9 3041000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes9 3041000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 9511000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7 4421000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 2101000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses635.0391000 heads2017
asses and mules717.7041000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
llamas and alpacas3 1001000 heads2012
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds216 6501000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.6861000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.381000 t2014
cheese11.3591000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes8 850t2017
total catch10 500t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
In 2006, the substantial hydrocarbon resources were nationalized, like the YPFB, the country’s main company in the sector. The largest fields are Bermejo and Caranda, near Santa Cruz, where some of the petroleum is also refined; the rest is conveyed through oil pipelines (the main one between Santa Cruz-Sica and Arica is 971 km long) to the refineries at Sucre and Cochabamba. The natural gas extracted at Colpa, Río Grande and Tita, near Santa Cruz is partly piped to Brazil along a pipeline.
The most important mineral deposits are tin (at Oruro and Potosí), bismuth, lithium (at the Uyuni salt flats), lead (at Tupiza-Villazón), zinc (at Potosí, Pulacayo-Huanchaca and Matilde), tungsten (at Atocha and the Cordillera Quimza Cruz). Large quantities of salt are produced from the vast salt lake of Salar de Uyuni. The electricity requirement is mainly covered by thermal (natural gas) and hydro-electric power plants.
Industry is not very highly developed but includes oil refineries, metal-working plants (at Viacha and Sucre), textiles (at La Paz, Oruro and Santa Cruz), food-processing plants (at Cochabamba and Santa Cruz), pharmaceuticals (at Cochabamba and La Paz), tobacco (at La Paz, Sucre and Cocha­bamba), sugar and cement.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas20 106M m³2017
oil, crude2 979.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony2.71000 t2018
bismuth0.011000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite221000 t2016
boron1801000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
amethyst189 000kg2015
gold12 811kg2016
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic0.041000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 908.06M kWh2016
- hydro1 703M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 0871000 kW2016
- hydro4971000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation8 951.06M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 7641000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.371000 t2015
copper1.51000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen21000 t2016
petrol1 116.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tyres27 004no.2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m1.038M m2012
wool yarn0.3971000 t2012
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear5 006 538pairs2012
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley359.81000 t2014
cottonseed oil10.71000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8.5M units2012
cigars and cigarettes8.5M units2012
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 6011000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production288.2M US$2012
food, beverages and tobacco production1 353.3M US$2012
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) natural gas 2 625, zinc ores 1 352, gold and silver 1 109, precious minerals and metals 565, residues and wastes of food industry 365, refined tin 326, lead ores 246, fruit and vegetables 216

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels40.253% of goods exports2018
ores and metals36.312% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil1 721M US$2018
Argentina1 451M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 075M US$2018
Brazil1 613M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20188 965M US$ -
20177 846M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20189 932M US$ -
20179 304M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 017M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 134 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 900 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 302.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers32.455per 1000 pop.2017
Computers24per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education (from 6 to 14 years of age) is compulsory and free; secondary education (four years) is optional.


Social security and health.
In 2010, a new law was passed lowering the age of retirement to 58 (reduced to 55 for women with at least three children).

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.7years2007
Gradautes, percentage7.5%2015
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level73 779units2016
Teachers, secondary level57 955units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending12.5% of total expenses2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.1per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.5per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2017
HIV, total0.05%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.16% of GDP2009
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking64%2016
Access to electricity91.8%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food28.6%2000
housing, energy10.3%2000
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