Form of Government: Republic
Area: 207 600 sq km
Population: 9 349 600 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 45.04 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 56° - 51° N; long. 23° - 32° E
Capital: Minsk (capital) 2 009 800 inhab. (2021);
Currency: Belarusian rouble (100 kopeks); as of 1 July 2016, a new ruble was introduced, equal to 10 000 old rubles
Human development index: 0.823 (rank: 53)
President: Aljaksandar Lukašènka, in office since 20 July 1994, last re-elected 9 August 2020
Prime Minister: Roman Golovchenko, since 4 June 2020
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 17 November 2019: Communist Party, 11; Republican Party of Labour and Justice, 6; Patriotic Party, 2; independents and other supporters of the President, 91
Internet: www.belstat.gov.by (National Statistical Committee)
Member of CIS, EAEU, EBRD, OSCE, SCO observer, UN, WTO observer

Belarus

Bielaruś, Belarus', Respublika Bielaruś, Respublika Belarus'
Useful information

International license plate code BY
International dialling code 00375
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .by

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Minsk 5.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Minsk -10/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Minsk 10/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Minsk 628
Days of rainfall (annual average) Minsk 130

Politics and current affairs

After a Ryanair flight to Vilnius was hijacked by a regime, which resulted in the arrest of the journalist Roman Protasevich, the European Union and the United States imposed a number of sanctions on the country, including isolating the Belarusian air space.

Geography.
Belarus is bordered by Russia to the north and east, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west and Lithuania and Latvia to the north-west. The country is a vast plain with numerous lakes and swamps, with rolling moraine hills in the north, criss-crossed by the rivers Western Dvina, Dnieper, Pripet and Neman. It has a continental climate, with cold winters and high levels of precipitation.

Government


Formerly a federal republic of the USSR, Belarus became independent on 25 August 1991, although it has remained within the political and economic sphere of Russia.
Aljaksandar Lukašènka, who has established an authoritarian regime, has been in power since 1994. According to the 1994 Constitution, modified several time, the president is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term and has wide powers. In October 2004, a referendum lifted the limit on presidential terms. The presidential elections will take place in 2020; the legislative ones are expected by October 2019. The Parliament is composed of the House of Representatives (110 members elected by universal suffrage for four years) and the Council of the Republic (64 members: 56 elected by local administrative bodies and eight appointed by the President, with a mandate of four years).


Defence and justice

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force31.2%2015
Army34.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 014.8per 100 000 pop.2020
Homicides3.3per 100 000 pop.2020
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Minsk2 009 800inhab.2021
Homieĺ/Gomel507 800inhab.2021
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.32019
Death rate12.82019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Belarusian84.9%2019
Russian7.5%2019


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox48.3%2011
nonreligious/atheist41.1%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Belarusian (official)
Russian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.1%2020
15-29 years16$%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.01index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)101.02index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 915 786units2020
Active population, Females49$%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females35.7%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses41 980M LCU2020
Revenues39 290M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture11$%2019
industry30.5%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.807%2019
industry36.014%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation5.21BN LCU2020
International reserves7 468.343M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In the south of the country, much of the agricultural land is still uncultivated because it is still contaminated by the emissions resulting from the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (in Ukraine) in 1986.
The main products are potatoes and cereals. Livestock farming, especially pigs and cattle, has developed and fuels exports.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land28.697%2018
forests43.066%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 098.1891000 t2019
cereals, total6 992.2311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes6 105.2941000 t2019
roots and tubers, total6 105.2941000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages392.2741000 t2019
carrots and turnips325.6781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry232.8931000 t2019
peas, dry70.7091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes18.7121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed578.0681000 t2019
sunflower seed1.4241000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet4 927.3311000 t2019
tobacco1.51000 t2007
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow46.2451000 t2019
linseed9.3691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples336.6971000 t2019
blueberries0.2351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts1.2171000 t2019
walnuts18.4311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms25.6071000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley408.9181000 ha2019
maize190.1591000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes266.6241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages9.7381000 ha2019
carrots and turnips9.491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry104.0651000 ha2019
peas, dry33.5131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape4.5211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed344.5411000 ha2019
sunflower seed0.8581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet94.9891000 ha2019
tobacco0.81000 ha2007
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow49.2241000 ha2019
linseed24.4451000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples51.5371000 ha2019
blueberries0.1011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts1.9961000 ha2019
walnuts5.3421000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber26 996 3002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 294.91000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes4 294.91000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 882.31000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep87.41000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats61.41000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9.0491000 heads2019
asses and mules9.0491000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds43 9891000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.6691000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter119.51000 t2020
cheese270.71000 t2020
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs5$t2019
freshwater fishes9 723.6t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Belarus has small deposits of natural gas and petroleum, which are insufficient to meet the country’s energy requirement. For this reason it imports hydrocarbons on a massive scale (mainly from Russia), which, once refined, are partly exported. The Druzhba oil pipeline, linked to Europe, plays an important role.
The main segments of the industrial sector are iron and steel, engineering, food and chemicals.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas160M m³2019
oil, crude1 714.41000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum68$1000 t2019
potash7 3001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite2 2361000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal36 675.98M kWh2019
- other renew.695M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9 8841000 kW2018
- other renew.3141000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation37 715.5M kWh2019
total installed capacity10 282.761000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude2 4901000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes76 000no.2020
cars21 295no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks983 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners2 500no.2016
computers48 160no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen7811000 t2018
petrol3 224.41000 t2020
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 1001000 t2019
artificial yarn0.41000 t2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets22 5221000 m²2017
cotton fabrics65.2M m²2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear7 000 000pairs2020
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley475.621000 t2018
fish, frozen1.511000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes34 837M units2013
cigars and cigarettes34 837M units2013
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1471000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp1871000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 7361000 t2020
sheet glass5211000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 370.357M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production3 182.434M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector.

Imports and exports are mostly bound for Russia, which remains its main trading partner. There is a growing presence of electronics and IT companies around Minsk.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2016)
crude oil and petroleum products 4 681, fertilizers 2 414, vehicles and parts thereof 1 841, cheese and dairy products 1 824, iron and steel 1 519, machinery and home appliances 1 305, plastics 913, timber 843, electrical and electronic equipment 757, meat 693, fruit and vegetables 432, furniture and accessories 423, chemicals 352, optical and electro-medical appliances 320

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures54.018% of goods exports2019
fuels20.699% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia13 004M US$2020
Ukraine3 148M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia16 253M US$2020
China3 621M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202029 043M US$ -
201932 960M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202032 595M US$ -
201939 480M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 237M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 201 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 208.31000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers340.111per 1000 pop.2019
Computers8.1per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.405years2018
Graduates124 152units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level427 752units2018
Students, secondary level649 357units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending33.844% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending2.1% of GDP2020
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds8.2per 1000 pop.2020
Physicians4.2per 1000 pop.2020
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2019
Tuberculosis29$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums160units2020
Museums, visitors3 237 000units2020
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.604% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking98.9%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.5%2020
education, culture, recreation6.4%2020
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