Form of Government: Republic
Area: 207 600 sq km
Population: 9 491 800 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 45.72 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 56° - 51° N; long. 23° - 32° E
Capital: Minsk (capital) 1 982 400 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Belarusian rouble (100 kopeks); as of 1 July 2016, a new ruble was introduced, equal to 10 000 old rubles
Human development index: 0.796 (rank: 52)
President: Aljaksandar Lukašènka, in office since 20 July 1994, last re-elected 12 October 2015
Prime Minister: Sjargej Rumas, since 18 August 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 11 September 2016: Communist Party, 8; Patriotic Party, 3; Republican Party of Labour and Justice, 3; independents and other supporters of the President, 94; opposition (United Civic Party and independents), 2
Internet: www.belstat.gov.by (National Statistical Committee)
Member of CIS, EAEU, EBRD, OSCE, SCO observer, UN, WTO observer

Belarus

Bielaruś, Belarus', Respublika Bielaruś, Respublika Belarus'
Useful information

International license plate code BY
International dialling code 00375
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .by

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Minsk 5.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Minsk -10/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Minsk 10/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Minsk 628
Days of rainfall (annual average) Minsk 130

Politics and current affairs

Despite measured gaps, president Lukašènka’s government remains in power. Belarusian military forces sided with Russia for the important Zapad exercise in September 2017. Nevertheless, in an attempt to mitigate strategic dependence on Moscow, the authorization to build a new Russian base was not approved.

Geography.
Belarus is bordered by Russia to the north and east, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west and Lithuania and Latvia to the north-west. The country is a vast plain with numerous lakes and swamps, with rolling moraine hills in the north, criss-crossed by the rivers Western Dvina, Dnieper, Pripet and Neman. It has a continental climate, with cold winters and high levels of precipitation.

Government


Formerly a federal republic of the USSR, Belarus became independent on 25 August 1991, although it has remained within the political and economic sphere of Russia.
Aljaksandar Lukašènka, who has established an authoritarian regime, has been in power since 1994. According to the 1994 Constitution, modified several time, the president is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term and has wide powers. In October 2004, a referendum lifted the limit on presidential terms. The Parliament is composed of the House of Representatives (110 members elected by universal suffrage for four years) and the Council of the Republic (64 members: 56 elected by local administrative bodies and eight appointed by the President, with a mandate of four years).


Defence and justice

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force31.2%2015
Army34.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes978.5per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides4.6per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Minsk1 982 400inhab.2018
Homieĺ/Gomel536 000inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.82017
Death rate12.62017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Belarusian83.7%2009
Russian8.3%2009


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox48.3%2011
nonreligious/atheist41.1%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Belarusian (official)
Russian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.8%2017
15-29 years17.9%2017


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.01index2016
Balance of trade-4 997M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 048 872units2017
Active population, Females49.7%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate0.5%2017
Unemployment rate, Females53%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses29 358.8M LCU2017
Revenues33 251.2M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.9%2017
industry31.2%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.9%2016
industry36.1%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.1BN LCU2017
International reserves7 315.2M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In the south of the country, much of the agricultural land is still uncultivated because it is still contaminated by the emissions resulting from the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (in Ukraine) in 1986. The main products are potatoes and cereals. Livestock farming, especially pigs and cattle, has developed and fuels exports.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land28.57%2015
forests42.55%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 252.691000 t2016
cereals, total7 075.1361000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes5 985.811000 t2016
roots and tubers, total5 985.811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages429.021000 t2016
carrots and turnips337.4191000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry277.7551000 t2016
peas, dry49.7311000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes17.3621000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed259.9921000 t2016
sunflower seed1.2041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet4 278.3591000 t2016
tobacco1.51000 t2007
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow41.3451000 t2016
linseed6.4991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples509.2641000 t2016
cherries42.81000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts1.3471000 t2016
walnuts16.6541000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms10.1351000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley450.8141000 ha2016
maize124.2081000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes292.4011000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages11.3861000 ha2016
carrots and turnips10.3681000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry110.5781000 ha2016
peas, dry21.2831000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape4.2161000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed209.9111000 ha2016
sunflower seed0.8221000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet95.9521000 ha2016
tobacco0.81000 ha2007
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow44.0661000 ha2016
linseed22.0251000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples52.7841000 ha2016
cherries6.8411000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts1.7841000 ha2016
walnuts5.3621000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tannin512t2003
timber19 568 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 302.41000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes4 302.41000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 1521000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep89.81000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats68.41000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses8.9561000 heads2016
asses and mules8.9561000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds49 5151000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.8011000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter106.7131000 t2014
cheese175.6791000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes11 182t2016
total catch11 885t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Belarus has small deposits of natural gas and petroleum, which are insufficient to meet the country’s energy requirement. For this reason it imports hydrocarbons on a massive scale (mainly from Russia, also via the Druzhba oil pipeline, headed to Germany), which, once refined, are partly exported.
The main segments of the industrial sector are iron and steel, engineering, food and chemicals.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas205M m³2017
oil, crude1 5961000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potash6 4001000 t2017
salt2 5001000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal31 729.7M kWh2015
- other renew.220M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal10 0001000 kW2015
- other renew.471000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation32 055.7M kWh2015
total installed capacity10 0831000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude2 3431000 t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes73 000no.2015
cars3 580no.2017
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks1 370 000no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners2 300no.2015
computers52 499no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen6371000 t2015
petrol3 968.51000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 1001000 t2017
artificial yarn0.41000 t2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets18 4941000 m²2015
cotton fabrics58.7M m²2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear9 890 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley432.41000 t2014
fish, frozen2.71000 t2015
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes34 837M units2013
cigars and cigarettes34 837M units2013
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp32.91000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp32.91000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 6381000 t2015
sheet glass1851000 m²2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 401.6M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production3 803.8M US$2014
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
Imports and exports are mostly bound for Russia, which remains its main trading partner. There is a growing presence of electronics and IT companies around Minsk.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2016)
crude oil and petroleum products 4 681, fertilizers 2 414, vehicles and parts thereof 1 841, cheese and dairy products 1 824, iron and steel 1 519, machinery and home appliances 1 305, plastics 913, timber 843, electrical and electronic equipment 757, meat 693, fruit and vegetables 432, furniture and accessories 423, chemicals 352, optical and electro-medical appliances 320

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures54.816% of goods exports2016
fuels20.510% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia10 902M US$2016
Ukraine2 833M US$2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia14 973M US$2016
China2 117M US$2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201729 221.6M US$ -
201623 537.3M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201734 218.2M US$ -
201627 609.9M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures897M US$2016
Number of arrivals9 423 500units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 493.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers334.090per 1000 pop.2017
Computers8.1per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.5years2016
Graduates122 505units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level22 385units2016
Teachers, secondary level77 654units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending36.4% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds8.5per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians4.2per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2016
Tuberculosis52per 100 000 pop.2016
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums157units2015
Museums, visitors6 308 800units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.5% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking98.18%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear8.3%2015
education, culture, recreation6.9%2015
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