Form of Government: Republic
Area: 207 600 sq km
Population: 9 475 200 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 45.64 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 56° - 51° N; long. 23° - 32° E
Capital: Minsk (capital) 1 992 700 inhab. (2019);
Currency: Belarusian rouble (100 kopeks); as of 1 July 2016, a new ruble was introduced, equal to 10 000 old rubles
Human development index: 0.808 (rank: 53)
President: Aljaksandar Lukašènka, in office since 20 July 1994, last re-elected 12 October 2015
Prime Minister: Sjargej Rumas, since 18 August 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 11 September 2016: Communist Party, 8; Patriotic Party, 3; Republican Party of Labour and Justice, 3; independents and other supporters of the President, 94; opposition (United Civic Party and independents), 2
Internet: www.belstat.gov.by (National Statistical Committee)
Member of CIS, EAEU, EBRD, OSCE, SCO observer, UN, WTO observer

Belarus

Bielaruś, Belarus', Respublika Bielaruś, Respublika Belarus'
Useful information

International license plate code BY
International dialling code 00375
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .by

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Minsk 5.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Minsk -10/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Minsk 10/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Minsk 628
Days of rainfall (annual average) Minsk 130

Politics and current affairs

Lukašènka’s government had to accept a reduction in subsidies from Russia and is focused on normalizing relations with the USA, lifting a decade-old restriction on US diplomats.

Geography.
Belarus is bordered by Russia to the north and east, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west and Lithuania and Latvia to the north-west. The country is a vast plain with numerous lakes and swamps, with rolling moraine hills in the north, criss-crossed by the rivers Western Dvina, Dnieper, Pripet and Neman. It has a continental climate, with cold winters and high levels of precipitation.

Government


Formerly a federal republic of the USSR, Belarus became independent on 25 August 1991, although it has remained within the political and economic sphere of Russia.
Aljaksandar Lukašènka, who has established an authoritarian regime, has been in power since 1994. According to the 1994 Constitution, modified several time, the president is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term and has wide powers. In October 2004, a referendum lifted the limit on presidential terms.
The presidential elections will take place in 2020; the legislative ones are expected by October 2019. The Parliament is composed of the House of Representatives (110 members elected by universal suffrage for four years) and the Council of the Republic (64 members: 56 elected by local administrative bodies and eight appointed by the President, with a mandate of four years).


Defence and justice

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force31.2%2015
Army34.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes908.2per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides3.7per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Minsk1 992 700inhab.2019
Homieĺ/Gomel537 000inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.92018
Death rate12.72018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Belarusian83.7%2009
Russian8.3%2009


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox48.3%2011
nonreligious/atheist41.1%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Belarusian (official)
Russian (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.9%2018
15-29 years17.2%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.01index2016
Balance of trade-4 674.9M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 011 695units2018
Active population, Females49.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females36%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses33 090M LCU2018
Revenues37 683M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.6%2018
industry30.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.9%2017
industry37%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.74BN LCU2018
International reserves7 157.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In the south of the country, much of the agricultural land is still uncultivated because it is still contaminated by the emissions resulting from the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (in Ukraine) in 1986. The main products are potatoes and cereals. Livestock farming, especially pigs and cattle, has developed and fuels exports.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land28.57%2015
forests42.55%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 419.8291000 t2017
cereals, total7 529.4121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes6 414.7551000 t2017
roots and tubers, total6 414.7551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages445.6081000 t2017
carrots and turnips337.5771000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry351.7251000 t2017
peas, dry51.0161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes17.1691000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed602.4511000 t2017
sunflower seed1.0791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet4 988.7111000 t2017
tobacco1.51000 t2007
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow42.3271000 t2017
linseed7.3251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples317.0781000 t2017
cherries12.2721000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts1.361000 t2017
walnuts16.4931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms11.6781000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley451.7581000 ha2017
maize130.3871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes275.9971000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages10.7181000 ha2017
carrots and turnips9.1341000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry123.6851000 ha2017
peas, dry17.0931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape4.1741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed332.3081000 ha2017
sunflower seed0.8431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet99.8571000 ha2017
tobacco0.81000 ha2007
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow45.9291000 ha2017
linseed17.8671000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples51.7521000 ha2017
cherries6.7131000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts1.9071000 ha2017
walnuts5.2561000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tannin512t2003
timber23 801 1002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 362.51000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes4 362.51000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 155.71000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep89.91000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats64.71000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses8.9871000 heads2017
asses and mules8.9871000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds49 4601000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.8011000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter106.7131000 t2014
cheese175.6791000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs6t2017
freshwater fishes10 405.5t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Belarus has small deposits of natural gas and petroleum, which are insufficient to meet the country’s energy requirement. For this reason it imports hydrocarbons on a massive scale (mainly from Russia), which, once refined, are partly exported. The Druzhba pipeline, linked to Europe, was interrupted in April 2019 due to the contamination of the oil from Russia, which wouldn’t have allowed for it to be refined.
The main segments of the industrial sector are iron and steel, engineering, food and chemicals.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas205M m³2017
oil, crude1 558.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potash7 1001000 t2018
salt2 0001000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal31 156.3M kWh2016
- other renew.279M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9 7501000 kW2016
- other renew.2181000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation31 576.3M kWh2016
total installed capacity10 0421000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude2 4601000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes65 000no.2018
cars10 941no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks983 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners2 500no.2016
computers48 160no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen6771000 t2016
petrol3 502.61000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 1001000 t2018
artificial yarn0.41000 t2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets22 5221000 m²2017
cotton fabrics65.2M m²2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear11 400 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley432.41000 t2014
fish, frozen1.511000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes34 837M units2013
cigars and cigarettes34 837M units2013
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp21000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp401000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 5191000 t2018
sheet glass5211000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 377.3M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production1 985.5M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
Imports and exports are mostly bound for Russia, which remains its main trading partner. There is a growing presence of electronics and IT companies around Minsk.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2016)
crude oil and petroleum products 4 681, fertilizers 2 414, vehicles and parts thereof 1 841, cheese and dairy products 1 824, iron and steel 1 519, machinery and home appliances 1 305, plastics 913, timber 843, electrical and electronic equipment 757, meat 693, fruit and vegetables 432, furniture and accessories 423, chemicals 352, optical and electro-medical appliances 320

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures53.798% of goods exports2018
fuels24.605% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia12 869M US$2018
Ukraine4 060M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia22 395M US$2018
China3 002M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201833 716M US$ -
201729 240M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201838 391M US$ -
201734 235M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 082M US$2017
Number of arrivals11 060 200units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 493.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers334.090per 1000 pop.2017
Computers8.1per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.4years2017
Graduates116 821units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level22 497units2017
Teachers, secondary level78 814units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending36.4% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending2.1% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds8.4per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians4.5per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2017
Tuberculosis37per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums159units2018
Museums, visitors6 958 400units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.6% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking98.18%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.8%2018
education, culture, recreation7.4%2018
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