Form of Government: Republic
Area: 147 570 sq km
Population: 162 700 000 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 1 102.53 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 27° - 21° N; long. 88° - 93° E
Capital: Dhaka (capital) 11 086 309 inhab. (2011); Dhaka 19 578 000 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: taka (100 poisha)
Human development index: 0.608 (rank: 136)
President: Abdul Hamid (Awami League), in office since 24 April 2013
Prime Minister: Sheikh Wajed Hasina (Awami League), since 6 January 2009
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 30 December 2018: AL (Awami League, social democratic), 258; JP (National Party), 22; BNP (Bangladesh Nationalist Party), 6; independents, 3; others, 11
Internet: www.bbs.gov.bd (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, OIC, SAARC, UN, WTO

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
Useful information

International license plate code BD
International dialling code 0088
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .bd

GMT  +6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Dacca 33.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Dacca 19/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Dacca 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Dacca 2009
Days of rainfall (annual average) Dacca 96

Politics and current affairs

On 30 December 2018, the Awami League, the governing party, earned an absolute majority in the legislative elections, which were plagued with fraud and violence.

Geography.
Bangladesh is bordered by India to the west, north and north-east and by Myanmar (Burma) to the south-east. It lies on the Bay of Bengal to the south, and occupies a vast plain comprising the floodplains of the Rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra-Jamuna, Tista and Surma-Meghna.
Regularly affected by monsoons, the climate has high temperatures and a marked difference between a dry season and a wet season when torrential rains are frequent.

Government


Bangladesh is an independent republic and member of the Commonwealth. It is the result of a split from Pakistan (of which it was the Eastern Region) that was proclaimed on 26 March 1971 (effective since 16 December 1971). On 15 August 1975, the army took over power in a coup d’état. It stayed in power (except for a short interval from 30 May 1981 to 24 March 1982) until 1990.
The elections of 1991 ratified the return to constitutional legality. Nevertheless, contrasts between the conservatives (led by the Nationalist Party BNP) and the opposition parties (the socialist-inspired pro-Indian Awami League) have been very bitter, taking the country to the brink of civil war. Since the elections of 1996, the Awami League and the BNP have alternated in power, except during the political crisis of 2006-08, with a caretaker government supported by the army. In 1997, the government reached a peace agreement with the Shanti Bahini rebels who had been struggling for the autonomy of the Chittagong Hill Tracts since 1973 (three districts in the south-eastern part of the country inhabited mostly by Buddhists). The area is rife with violence tied to Islamic fundamentalism, fostered by intolerance towards religious minorities.
According to the 1972 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by Parliament which is made up of 300 members elected for five years by direct suffrage, with 50 seats reserved for women. Islam is the state religion, although religious freedom is guaranteed. The legal system is based on British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.9%2015
Army80.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes113.1per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides2.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dhaka11 086 309inhab.2011
Chittagong3 669 170inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dhaka19 578 000inhab.2018
Chittagong4 539 000inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The birth-rate is falling; the law that sets the minimum age for marriage is largely disregarded, above all in country areas. In the country live about 900 000 refugees of Rohingya ethnicity, fleeing from Myanmar.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.52017
Death rate5.12017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bengali98%2011
other2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim89.1%2013
Hindu10%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bengali (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years27.3%2018
15-29 years27.6%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy is enjoying high growth rates, due in particular to the export of textile products on behalf of major multinationals and remittances by emigrants. Low wages and hard working conditions trigger protests and unrest. Overpopulation, widespread corruption, natural disasters and lack of infrastructure hinder development.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)144.35index2016
Balance of trade-22 248M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population70 495 225units2018
Active population, Females30.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females46.2%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 693 800M LCU2017
Revenues2 022 200M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture40.2%2018
industry20.5%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture14.2%2017
industry29.3%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 568.3BN LCU2018
International reserves32 028.4M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Despite heightened fragmentation of land ownership, the loss of arable terrain and the irregular water regime (an alternation between torrential downpours and droughts), agricultural production is rapidly growing.
Food crops, cereals in particular (rice), are destined for domestic consumption. The main commercial crop is jute (in the areas of Mymensingh, Rangpur, Comilla and Dhaka). Cattle are very common, but most are used to work in the fields. Fishing and aquaculture play a major role; their products (cyprinids, herrings, crustaceans) are mainly exported.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land66.02%2015
forests10.98%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.2871000 t2017
cereals, total53 332.2441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes10 215.9571000 t2017
roots and tubers, total10 478.6591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages311.651000 t2017
cauliflowers277.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry75.6111000 t2017
beans, green137.4951000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.2731000 t2017
groundnuts66.061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts89.41000 t2017
copra14.91000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger77.4781000 t2017
pepper1381000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 862.7751000 t2017
tobacco911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton62.61000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed4.1651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1 350.9751000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total3 880.6221000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits158.6561000 t2017
grapefruits65.561000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas807.1041000 t2017
mangoes1 517.6911000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.3291000 ha2017
maize389.8781000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes499.7251000 ha2017
sweet potatoes25.751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages18.4861000 ha2017
cauliflowers19.7181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry85.4231000 ha2017
beans, green20.881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.3841000 ha2017
groundnuts36.9031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts41.7111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger9.3071000 ha2017
pepper162.31000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane92.061000 ha2017
tobacco45.7291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton17.8061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed5.3651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute667.9921000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits38.2681000 ha2017
grapefruits7.771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas48.6441000 ha2017
mangoes159.0421000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber6 775t2017
timber26 405 3912017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle23 9351000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes25 4131000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 4781000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 210.0151000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats59 714.7091000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds329 1991000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter26.731000 t2014
cheese11000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs261 195t2017
freshwater fishes2 951 805t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Although poorly exploited, mineral resources include coal, oil (at Sylhet and Feni), natural gas (at Gopalganj and Bakhrabad) and salt; to meet the needs of the country, natural gas is also imported by sea and regasified. Industrial activity is tied first and foremost to the textile industry, fostered by influxes of foreign revenue and aimed at exports; there are also agricultural products (tobacco, sugar, tea and leather) and chemical, petro-chemical and iron and steel plants (Ghorasal, Fenchuganj and Chittagong), as well as car, shipbuilding, cement, rubber and glass plants.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal9031000 t2016
coal, total9031000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt1 477.21000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite153.71000 t2016
kaolin8.51000 t2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal59 775.54M kWh2016
- hydro560M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal11 4951000 kW2016
- hydro2301000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation60 505.54M kWh2016
total installed capacity11 8971000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude601000 t2011
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes31 000no.2010
cars580no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
radios34 700no.2010
telephones499 676no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen651000 t2016
petrol69.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia6001000 t2016
artificial yarn5.31000 t2001
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m49M m2010
cotton yarn175.31000 t2013-14
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear21 235 000pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconut oil17.91000 t2014
cottonseed oil5.41000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes15 660M units2017
tobacco38 000t2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp111000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp471000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement14 689.81000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production936.4M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production2 785.9M US$2011
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
apparel and accessories 34 842, household linens 1 063, footwear 956, raw and processed jute 755, fish and crustaceans 632, leather goods 277, hats 300, hides and skins 146, tobacco 96, plastics 93, optical instruments and appliances 88

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures95.806% of goods exports2015
food products2.705% of goods exports2015
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 374M US$2007
Germany2 002M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 750M US$2007
India2 334M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201839 252M US$ -
201735 851M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201861 500M US$ -
201752 836M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 118M US$2017
Number of arrivals125 000units2014
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown30 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 785.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers44.306per 1000 pop.2017
Computers23per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.2years2017
Gradautes, percentage27.2%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level574 001units2017
Teachers, secondary level450 666units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending6.8% of total expenses2013
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.6per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Malaria4 912cases2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking17.72%2016
Access to electricity88%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.9%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages51.1%2008
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