Form of Government: Republic
Area: 147 570 sq km
Population: 164 689 383 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 1 116.01 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 27° - 21° N; long. 88° - 93° E
Capital: Dhaka (capital) 11 086 309 inhab. (2011); Dhaka 19 578 000 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: taka (100 poisha)
Human development index: 0.632 (rank: 133)
President: Abdul Hamid (Awami League), in office since 24 April 2013
Prime Minister: Sheikh Wajed Hasina (Awami League), since 6 January 2009
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 30 December 2018: AL (Awami League, social democratic), 258; JP (National Party), 22; BNP (Bangladesh Nationalist Party), 6; independents, 3; others, 11
Internet: www.bbs.gov.bd (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, OIC, SAARC, UN, WTO

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
Useful information

International license plate code BD
International dialling code 0088
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .bd

GMT  +6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Dacca 33.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Dacca 19/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Dacca 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Dacca 2009
Days of rainfall (annual average) Dacca 96

Geography.
Bangladesh is bordered by India to the west, north and north-east and by Myanmar (Burma) to the south-east. It lies on the Bay of Bengal to the south, and occupies a vast plain comprising the floodplains of the Rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra-Jamuna, Tista and Surma-Meghna.
Regularly affected by monsoons, the climate has high temperatures and a marked difference between a dry season and a wet season when torrential rains are frequent.

Government


Bangladesh is an independent republic and member of the Commonwealth. It is the result of a split from Pakistan (of which it was the Eastern Region) that was proclaimed on 26 March 1971 (effective since 16 December 1971). On 15 August 1975, the army took over power in a coup d’état. It stayed in power (except for a short interval from 30 May 1981 to 24 March 1982) until 1990.
The elections of 1991 ratified the return to constitutional legality. Nevertheless, contrasts between the conservatives (led by the Nationalist Party BNP) and the opposition parties (the socialist-inspired pro-Indian Awami League) have been very bitter, taking the country to the brink of civil war. Since the elections of 1996, the Awami League and the BNP have alternated in power, except during the political crisis of 2006-08, with a caretaker government supported by the army. In 1997, the government reached a peace agreement with the Shanti Bahini rebels who had been struggling for the autonomy of the Chittagong Hill Tracts since 1973 (three districts in the south-eastern part of the country inhabited mostly by Buddhists). The area is rife with violence tied to Islamic fundamentalism, fostered by intolerance towards religious minorities.
According to the 1972 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by Parliament which is made up of 300 members elected for five years by direct suffrage, with 50 seats reserved for women. Islam is the state religion, although religious freedom is guaranteed. The legal system is based on British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.9%2015
Army80.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes113.1per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides2.2per 100 000 pop.2016
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dhaka11 086 309inhab.2011
Chittagong3 669 170inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dhaka19 578 000inhab.2018
Chittagong4 539 000inhab.2014
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The birth-rate is falling; the law that sets the minimum age for marriage is largely disregarded, above all in country areas. In the country live about 850 000 refugees of Rohingya ethnicity, fleeing from Myanmar.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate17.8682019
Death rate5.5262019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bengali98$%2011
other2$%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim89.1%2013
Hindu10$%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bengali (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.4%2020
15-29 years27.1%2020


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
Due to the fall in exports caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the economic, sustained by the production of textiles for large multinationals and emigrant remittances, underwent a sizeable slowdown in 2020, followed by a partial recovery in 2021. The increase in unemployment had serious social repercussions, adding to low wages and hard working conditions that already led to protest and disorder in the past. Overpopulation, widespread corruption, natural disasters and lack of infrastructure hinder development.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)144.35index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)108.91index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population67 225 427units2020
Active population, Females30.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses4 554 766M LCU2020
Revenues5 045 070M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture38.6%2019
industry21.3%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture13.323%2019
industry31.151%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 015.26BN LCU2020
International reserves43 171.735M US$2020
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector.
Despite heightened fragmentation of land ownership, the loss of arable terrain and the irregular water regime (an alternation between torrential downpours and droughts), agricultural production is rapidly growing.
Food crops, cereals in particular (rice), are mostly destined for domestic consumption. The main commercial crop is jute (in the areas of Mymensingh, Rangpur, Comilla and Dhaka). Cattle are very common, but most are used to work in the fields. Fishing and aquaculture play a major role; their products (cyprinids, herrings, crustaceans) are mainly exported.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land66.085%2018
forests14.469%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.1571000 t2019
cereals, total59 181.921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9 655.0821000 t2019
roots and tubers, total9 890.9631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages331.021000 t2019
cauliflowers284.3271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry76.2241000 t2019
beans, green144.051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.2541000 t2019
groundnuts62.8321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts431.5961000 t2019
copra14.91000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger80.2341000 t2019
pepper1381000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane3 141.9231000 t2019
tobacco128.5971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton81$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed3.6411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1 600.4741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total4 896.7121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits165.3271000 t2019
grapefruits72.111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas833.3091000 t2019
mangoes1 456.3311000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.1911000 ha2019
maize445.0991000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes468.3951000 ha2019
sweet potatoes23.0141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages19.1821000 ha2019
cauliflowers20.1811000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry87.381000 ha2019
beans, green20.8731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.3641000 ha2019
groundnuts35.261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts36.4831000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger9.611000 ha2019
pepper162.31000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane81.0621000 ha2019
tobacco59.641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton23.9281000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed5.2841000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute749.6581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits38.061000 ha2019
grapefruits12.6581000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas48.851000 ha2019
mangoes134.3541000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber22 800t2019
timber25 913 7082019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle24 1871000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes25 6771000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 4901000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 332.0941000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats61 107.4251000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds344 0221000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter30.3821000 t2018
cheese1.1471000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs251 938t2019
freshwater fishes3 139 711t2019
TOP

Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Although poorly exploited, mineral resources include coal, oil (at Sylhet and Feni), natural gas (at Gopalganj and Bakhrabad) and salt; to meet the needs of the country, natural gas is also imported by sea and regasified. Industrial activity is tied first and foremost to the textile industry, fostered by influxes of foreign revenue and aimed at exports; there are also agricultural products (tobacco, sugar, tea and leather) and chemical, petro-chemical and iron and steel plants (Ghorasal, Fenchuganj and Chittagong), as well as car, shipbuilding, cement, rubber and glass plants.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal1 0201000 t2019
coal, total1 0201000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt1 5131000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite759.31000 t2018
kaolin8.51000 t2011
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal72 596.2M kWh2018
- hydro820M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal14 7601000 kW2018
- other renew.292.11000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation73 971.22M kWh2018
total installed capacity15 199.11000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude5 1001000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes368no.2019
cars580no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
radios34 700no.2010
telephones499 676no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen58.21000 t2018
petrol69.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia6001000 t2018
artificial yarn5.31000 t2001
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m43.4M m2018
cotton yarn20.471000 t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear28 538 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconut oil62.6991000 t2018
cottonseed oil5.5781000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes16 186M units2019
tobacco38 000t2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp11$1000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp47$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement17 951.31000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production965.7M US$2012
food, beverages and tobacco production2 873.2M US$2012
TOP

Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
apparel and accessories 34 842, household linens 1 063, footwear 956, raw and processed jute 755, fish and crustaceans 632, leather goods 277, hats 300, hides and skins 146, tobacco 96, plastics 93

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures95.807% of goods exports2015
food products2.706% of goods exports2015
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 374M US$2007
Germany2 002M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 750M US$2007
India2 334M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202033 605M US$ -
201939 337M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202052 410M US$ -
201959 094M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 388M US$2019
Number of arrivals323 000units2019
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown30 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 959.11000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers49.59per 1000 pop.2019
Computers23$per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.036years2018
Gradautes, percentage27.2%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level17 338 100units2018
Students, secondary level15 869 820units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending6.8% of total expenses2013
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians0.7per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
Malaria17 225cases2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking23$%2019
Access to electricity92.2%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.9%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages51.1%2008
TOP