Form of Government: Republic
Area: 147 570 sq km
Population: 160 221 000 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 1 085.73 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 27° - 21° N; long. 88° - 93° E
Capital: Dhaka (capital) 11 086 309 inhab. (2011); Dhaka 17 598 000 inhab. (2014), urban agglomeration
Currency: taka (100 poisha)
Human development index: 0.579 (rank: 139)
President: Abdul Hamid (Awami League), in office since 24 April 2013
Prime Minister: Sheikh Wajed Hasina (Awami League), since 6 January 2009
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 5 January 2014: AL (Awami League, social democratic), 234; JP (National Party), 35; Bangladesh Workers Party, 6; JSD (National Socialist Party) 5; independents, 16; others, 4
Internet: www.bbs.gov.bd (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Commonwealth, OIC, SAARC, UN, WTO

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
Useful information

International license plate code BD
International dialling code 0088
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side left
Internet code .bd

GMT  +6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Dacca 33.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Dacca 19/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Dacca 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Dacca 2009
Days of rainfall (annual average) Dacca 96

Politics and current affairs

On 8 February 2017, Khaleda Zia, leader of the opposition, was convicted of embezzlement, risking his chance of running as a candidate in the general elections at the end of 2018.

Geography.
Bangladesh is bordered by India to the west, north and north-east and by Myanmar (Burma) to the south-east. It lies on the Bay of Bengal to the south, and occupies a vast plain comprising the floodplains of the Rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra-Jamuna, Tista and Surma-Meghna.
Regularly affected by monsoons, the climate has high temperatures and a marked difference between a dry season and a wet season when torrential rains are frequent.

Government


Bangladesh is an independent republic and member of the Commonwealth. It is the result of a split from Pakistan (of which it was the Eastern Region) that was proclaimed on 26 March 1971 (effective since 16 December 1971). On 15 August 1975, the army took over power in a coup d’état. It stayed in power (except for a short interval from 30 May 1981 to 24 March 1982) until 1990.
The elections of 1991 ratified the return to constitutional legality. Nevertheless, contrasts between the conservatives (led by the Nationalist Party BNP) and the opposition parties (the socialist-inspired pro-Indian Awami League) have been very bitter, taking the country to the brink of civil war. Since the elections of 1996, the Awami League and the BNP have alternated in power, except during the political crisis of 2006-08, with a caretaker government supported by the army. In 1997, the government reached a peace agreement with the Shanti Bahini rebels who had been struggling for the autonomy of the Chittagong Hill Tracts since 1973 (three districts in the south-eastern part of the country inhabited mostly by Buddhists). The area is rife with violence tied to Islamic fundamentalism, fostered by intolerance towards religious minorities.
According to the 1972 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by Parliament which is made up of 300 members elected for five years by direct suffrage, with 50 seats reserved for women. Islam is the state religion, although religious freedom is guaranteed. The legal system is based on British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.9%2015
Army80.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes113.1per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides2.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dhaka11 086 309inhab.2011
Chittagong3 669 170inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Dhaka17 598 000inhab.2014
Chittagong4 539 000inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The birth-rate is falling; the law that sets the minimum age for marriage is largely disregarded, above all in country areas. In the country live about 900 000 refugees of Rohingya ethnicity, fleeing from Myanmar.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.72016
Death rate5.12016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Bengali98%2011
other2%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim89.1%2013
Hindu10%2013


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bengali (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years27.8%2017
15-29 years27.8%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy is enjoying high growth rates, due in particular to the export of textile products on behalf of major multinationals and remittances by emigrants. Low wages and hard working conditions trigger protests and unrest. Overpopulation, widespread corruption, natural disasters and lack of infrastructure hinder development.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)144.35index2016
Balance of trade-16 872M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population78 976 778units2014
Active population, Females40.4%2014
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.4%2017
Unemployment rate, Females47%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 384 300M LCU2016
Revenues1 748 400M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture39.1%2017
industry21.1%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture14.8%2016
industry28.7%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 391.5BN LCU2017
International reserves33 431.5M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Despite heightened fragmentation of land ownership, the loss of arable terrain and the irregular water regime (an alternation between torrential downpours and droughts), agricultural production is rapidly growing.
Food crops, cereals in particular (rice), are destined for domestic consumption. The main commercial crop is jute (in the areas of Mymensingh, Rangpur, Comilla and Dhaka). Cattle are very common, but most are used to work in the fields. Fishing and aquaculture play a major role; their products (cyprinids, herrings, crustaceans) are mainly exported.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land66.02%2015
forests10.98%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.3171000 t2016
cereals, total56 388.8921000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9 474.0991000 t2016
roots and tubers, total9 733.4711000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages295.7441000 t2016
cauliflowers268.4841000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry69.1821000 t2016
beans, green128.6761000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.2721000 t2016
groundnuts62.2641000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts92.4171000 t2016
copra14.91000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger77.291000 t2016
pepper1381000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 207.5921000 t2016
tobacco87.6281000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton601000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed4.4751000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1 350.9751000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total3 880.6221000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits155.9361000 t2016
grapefruits66.471000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas798.0121000 t2016
mangoes1 161.6851000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.3561000 ha2016
maize334.9741000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes475.6991000 ha2016
sweet potatoes24.8861000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages17.9521000 ha2016
cauliflowers19.3311000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry81.8551000 ha2016
beans, green20.2111000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.3831000 ha2016
groundnuts35.7261000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts431000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ginger9.4731000 ha2016
pepper162.31000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane98.3571000 ha2016
tobacco46.4721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton17.4011000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed6.5611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute667.9921000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits33.1421000 ha2016
grapefruits8.11000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas47.4321000 ha2016
mangoes153.0881000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber6 730t2016
timber26 525 5312016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle23 7851000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes25 2561000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 4711000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 174.2011000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats56 083.241000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds320 6331000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter26.731000 t2014
cheese11000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs246 895t2016
freshwater fishes2 798 489t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Although poorly exploited, mineral resources include oil (at Sylhet and Feni), natural gas (at Gopalganj and Bakhrabad) and salt. Industrial activity is tied first and foremost to the textile industry, fostered by influxes of foreign revenue and aimed at exports; there are also agricultural products (tobacco, sugar, tea and leather) and chemical, petro-chemical and iron and steel plants (Ghorasal, Fenchuganj and Chittagong), as well as car, shipbuilding, cement, rubber and glass plants.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal9311000 t2015
coal, total9311000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt1 4601000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite931.51000 t2015
kaolin8.51000 t2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal54 789.78M kWh2015
- hydro560M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal11 3001000 kW2015
- hydro2301000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation55 503.78M kWh2015
total installed capacity11 7021000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude601000 t2011
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes31 000no.2010
cars580no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
radios34 700no.2009-10
telephones7 500no.2006
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen671000 t2015
petrol69.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia6001000 t2016
artificial yarn5.31000 t2001
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m49M m2009-10
cotton yarn175.31000 t2013-14
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear16 655 000pairs2013-14
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconut oil17.91000 t2014
cottonseed oil5.41000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes28 314M units2013-14
tobacco38 000t2005
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp111000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp471000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement18 0001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production936.4M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production2 785.9M US$2011
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
apparel and accessories 34 842, household linens 1 063, footwear 956, raw and processed jute 755, fish and crustaceans 632, leather goods 277, hats 300, hides and skins 146, tobacco 96, plastics 93, optical instruments and appliances 88

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures95.806% of goods exports2015
food products2.705% of goods exports2015
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 374M US$2007
Germany2 002M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 750M US$2007
India2 334M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201735 964.75M US$ -
201634 894.41M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201752 836.3M US$ -
201644 832.1M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures848M US$2016
Number of arrivals125 000units2014
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown30 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 785.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers44.306per 1000 pop.2017
Computers23per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.7years2016
Gradautes, percentage27.2%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level548 201units2016
Teachers, secondary level436 224units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending6.8% of total expenses2013
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.6per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.5per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2016
Malaria4 787cases2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking17.72%2016
Access to electricity75.92%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.9%2008
food, non-alcoholic beverages51.1%2008
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