Form of Government: Monarchy
Area: 785 sq km
Population: 1 472 204 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 1 875.42 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° N; long. 51° - 50° E
Capital: Manama=Al-Manāmah (capital) 163 000 inhab. (2009); Manama 564 631 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Bahraini dinar (1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.852 (rank: 42)
Sovereign: Ḥamad bin ‘Īsā Āl Khalīfa (in power since 6 March 1999 as Emir, self-proclaimed as King on 14 February 2002)
Prime Minister: Salmān bin Ḥamad Āl Khalīfa, since 11 November 2020
Internet: www.data.gov.bh (Information and eGovernment Authority)
Member of Arab League, GCC, OIC, UN, WTO

Bahrain

Al-Baḥrayn, Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn
Useful information

International license plate code BRN
International dialling code 00973
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .bh

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Manama 26.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Manama 17/33.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Manama 10/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Manama 78
Days of rainfall (annual average) Manama 11

Geography.
An archipelago in the Arabic Gulf, Bahrain lies off the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia and to the north-west of the peninsula of Qatar. It is made up of 33 islands including Bahrain (572 km²), Muḥarraq (24.31 km²), Sitrah (30.1 km²), Umm an-Na‘sān (19 km²), Ḥawār (38 km²). Summers are rather hot, winters mild, and there is very little rainfall.

Government


A British protectorate after 1820, Bahrain has been an independent hereditary monarchy since 14 August 1971. In 1975 the Emir suspended the 1973 Constitution and dissolved the National Assembly, assuming all governmental powers.
The Constitution, promulgated on 14 February 2002 and reviewed in 2012 and 2017, grants wide powers to the sovereign in executive, judicial and, in part, legislative terms. The Consultative Council (40 members) is appointed by the king, while the Council of Representatives (40 members) is elected. Tensions between the Shia majority and the Sunni leaders give rise to sporadic protests (the most severe in 2011) repressed by the authorities. In 2020, the country announced the normalization of relations with Israel.
The judicial system is based on Islamic law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.3%2015
Army73.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 687.6per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Al-Muḥarraq176 583inhab.2012
Manama=Al-Manāmah163 000inhab.2009
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Manama564 631inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate13.6222019
Death rate2.4082019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total813 377units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab50.8%2010
Asian45.5%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Shia)46$%2010
other30$%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.4%2020
15-29 years25.3%2020


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Economy


The economy is based on the extraction of natural gas and oil. As well as the refineries at Sitrah, there are ship-building activities and industries producing aluminium and fertilizers. All industries make full use of the large number of foreign workers. Tourism and financial services are also of key importance.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)198.4index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)129.32index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 009 696units2020
Active population, Females20.1%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.1%2020
Unemployment rate, Females83.2%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses3 547.2M LCU2020
Revenues2 946.5M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1$%2019
industry35.2%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.307%2019
industry41.547%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.3BN LCU2015
International reserves2 523.074M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.897%2018
forests0.846%2018
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.031000 t2019
roots and tubers, total0.031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.811000 t2019
carrots and turnips0.0351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chick peas0.2811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.1521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total22.171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.1031000 t2019
lemons1.1031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.0521000 t2019
dates13$1000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.0011000 ha2019
sweet potatoes0$1000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.0251000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.0021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.0481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0941000 ha2019
lemons0.0941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.0911000 ha2019
dates2.491000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber7 3282019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle7.6671000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes7.6671000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep62.6571000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats25.6961000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1.1111000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds9 8381000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs4.4261000 t2019
hides and skins5.0981000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs7 644t2019
marine fishes7 060.5t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas16 436.8M m³2020
oil, crude8 515.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sulfur1511000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal27 773.24M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation99.967%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 9191000 kW2018
- other renew.7.351000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation27 782.49M kWh2018
total installed capacity3 926.351000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium1 5001000 t2020
ferroalloys5$1000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3311000 t2019
petrol4 025.31000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3831000 t2019
nitrogen fertilizers355.71000 t2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper12$1000 t2019
paper12$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 5001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 072.323M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production82.114M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels53.32% of goods exports2018
ores and metals22.776% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Saudi Arabia1 160M US$2010
Qatar619.4M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil1 829M US$2010
China1 178M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202014 006M US$ -
201918 120M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202012 683M US$ -
201913 256M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 637M US$2019
Number of arrivals3 849 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown49 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 440.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers85.909per 1000 pop.2019
Computers745.8per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.298years2019
Graduates5 921units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level115 819units2019
Students, secondary level102 003units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending2.4% of total expenses2005
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.9per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians2.3per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Tuberculosis12$per 100 000 pop.2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.101% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
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