Form of Government: Monarchy
Area: 778 sq km
Population: 1 423 726 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 1 829.98 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° N; long. 51° - 50° E
Capital: Manama=Al-Manāmah (capital) 163 000 inhab. (2009);
Currency: Bahraini dinar (1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.824 (rank: 47)
Sovereign: Ḥamad bin ‘Īsā Āl Khalīfa (in power since 6 March 1999 as Emir, self-proclaimed as King on 14 February 2002)
Prime Minister: Khalīfa bin Salmān Āl Khalīfa, since 19 January 1971
Internet: www.data.gov.bh (Information and eGovernment Authority)
Member of Arab League, GCC, OIC, UN, WTO

Bahrain

Al-Baḥrayn, Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn
Useful information

International license plate code BRN
International dialling code 00973
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .bh

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Manama 26.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Manama 17/33.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Manama 10/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Manama 78
Days of rainfall (annual average) Manama 11

Geography.
An archipelago in the Arabic Gulf, Bahrain lies off the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia and to the north-west of the peninsula of Qatar. It is made up of 33 islands including Bahrain (572 km²), Muharraq (24.31 km²), Sitra (30.1 km²), Umm Nasan (19 km²), Hawar (38 km²). Summers are rather hot, winters mild, and there is very little rainfall.

Government


A British protectorate after 1820, Bahrain has been an independent hereditary monarchy since 14 August 1971. In 1975 the Emir suspended the 1973 Constitution and dissolved the National Assembly, assuming all governmental powers.
The Constitution, promulgated on 14 February 2002 and reviewed in 2012 and 2017, grants wide powers to the sovereign in executive, judicial and, in part, legislative terms. The Consultative Council (40 members) is appointed by the king, while the Council of Representatives (40 members) is elected. Tensions between the Shia majority and the Sunni leaders give rise to sporadic protests (the most severe in 2011) repressed by the authorities; subsequent attempts to find common ground have proven unsuccessful and in 2016-17 the main Shia parties were dissolved.
The judicial system is based on Islamic law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.3%2015
Army73.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 687.6per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides1per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Manama=Al-Manāmah163 000inhab.2009
Al-Muḥarraq91 939inhab.2001
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.82016
Death rate2.42016
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total759 019units2016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab50.8%2010
Asian45.5%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Shia)46%2010
other30%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years19.1%2017
15-29 years25.8%2017


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Economy


The economy is based on the extraction of natural gas and oil. As well as the refineries at Sitra, there are ship-building activities and industries producing aluminium and fertilizers. All industries make full use of the large number of foreign workers. Tourism and financial services are also of key importance.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)198.4index2016
Balance of trade7 160M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population864 920units2017
Active population, Females21%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.7%2017
Unemployment rate, Females85.5%2015
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses3 601.6M LCU2015
Revenues2 097.3M LCU2015
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1%2017
industry35.1%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.3%2016
industry39.8%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.3BN LCU2015
International reserves2 612M US$2016
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.97%2015
forests0.78%2015
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.0341000 t2016
roots and tubers, total0.0341000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.7951000 t2016
carrots and turnips0.4151000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chick peas0.2811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.1481000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total18.5711000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.081000 t2016
lemons1.081000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.0061000 t2016
dates10.6271000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.0021000 ha2016
sweet potatoes01000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.0221000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.0121000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.0521000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0991000 ha2016
lemons0.0991000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.0991000 ha2016
dates3.9861000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber7 1072016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle9.541000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes9.541000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep39.2091000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats17.9911000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.21000 heads2010
asses and mules0.21000 heads2010
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1.0731000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5381000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs2.8411000 t2016
hides and skins2.8311000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs7 644t2016
marine fishes7 061t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas15 127M m³2017
oil, crude2 244.41000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sulfur1431000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal26 774.96M kWh2015
non-renewable electricity generation99.996%2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 9221000 kW2015
- other renew.61000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation26 775.96M kWh2015
total installed capacity3 9281000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium9601000 t2017
sulfur, total1431000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen6471000 t2015
petrol4 025.31000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia4201000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers319.21000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper121000 t2016
paper121000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 6001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production697.1M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production638.7M US$2013
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels55.030% of goods exports2016
ores and metals22.778% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Saudi Arabia1 160M US$2010
Qatar619.4M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil1 829M US$2010
China1 178M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201717 560M US$ -
201612 784.574M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201710 400M US$ -
20169 168.980M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures864M US$2014
Number of arrivals10 158 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown49 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 190.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers143.129per 1000 pop.2017
Computers745.8per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.3years2016
Graduates6 487units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level9 303units2016
Teachers, secondary level9 770units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending2.4% of total expenses2005
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians2.7per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2016
Tuberculosis12per 100 000 pop.2016
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
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