Form of Government: Monarchy
Area: 778 sq km
Population: 1 503 091 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 1 931.99 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 26° N; long. 51° - 50° E
Capital: Manama=Al-Manāmah (capital) 163 000 inhab. (2009); Manama 564 631 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Bahraini dinar (1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.846 (rank: 43)
Sovereign: Ḥamad bin ‘Īsā Āl Khalīfa (in power since 6 March 1999 as Emir, self-proclaimed as King on 14 February 2002)
Prime Minister: Khalīfa bin Salmān Āl Khalīfa, since 19 January 1971
Internet: www.data.gov.bh (Information and eGovernment Authority)
Member of Arab League, GCC, OIC, UN, WTO

Bahrain

Al-Baḥrayn, Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn
Useful information

International license plate code BRN
International dialling code 00973
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .bh

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Manama 26.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Manama 17/33.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Manama 10/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Manama 78
Days of rainfall (annual average) Manama 11

Geography.
An archipelago in the Arabic Gulf, Bahrain lies off the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia and to the north-west of the peninsula of Qatar. It is made up of 33 islands including Bahrain (572 km²), Muḥarraq (24.31 km²), Sitrah (30.1 km²), Umm an-Na‘sān (19 km²), Ḥawār (38 km²). Summers are rather hot, winters mild, and there is very little rainfall.

Government


A British protectorate after 1820, Bahrain has been an independent hereditary monarchy since 14 August 1971. In 1975 the Emir suspended the 1973 Constitution and dissolved the National Assembly, assuming all governmental powers.
The Constitution, promulgated on 14 February 2002 and reviewed in 2012 and 2017, grants wide powers to the sovereign in executive, judicial and, in part, legislative terms. The Consultative Council (40 members) is appointed by the king, while the Council of Representatives (40 members) is elected. Tensions between the Shia majority and the Sunni leaders give rise to sporadic protests (the most severe in 2011) repressed by the authorities; subsequent attempts to find common ground have proven unsuccessful and in 2016-17 the main Shia parties were dissolved.
The judicial system is based on Islamic law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.3%2015
Army73.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 687.6per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Al-Muḥarraq176 583inhab.2012
Manama=Al-Manāmah163 000inhab.2009
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Manama564 631inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.42017
Death rate2.42017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total813 377units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab50.8%2010
Asian45.5%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Shia)46%2010
other30%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.9%2018
15-29 years25.6%2018


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Economy


The economy is based on the extraction of natural gas and oil. As well as the refineries at Sitrah, there are ship-building activities and industries producing aluminium and fertilizers. All industries make full use of the large number of foreign workers. Tourism and financial services are also of key importance.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)198.4index2016
Balance of trade6 775.2M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population922 154units2018
Active population, Females20.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females85.5%2015
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses3 687.2M LCU2018
Revenues2 371.6M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1%2018
industry35.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.3%2017
industry41.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.3BN LCU2015
International reserves2 334.3M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.97%2015
forests0.78%2015
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.0291000 t2017
roots and tubers, total0.0291000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.7961000 t2017
carrots and turnips0.4261000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chick peas0.2811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.1491000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total18.5711000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.0861000 t2017
lemons1.0861000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1.0161000 t2017
dates10.5011000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.0011000 ha2017
sweet potatoes01000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.0211000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.0121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.0521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.0981000 ha2017
lemons0.0981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.0981000 ha2017
dates3.61000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber7 1802017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle10.0221000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes10.0221000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep38.8541000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats17.9921000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses0.21000 heads2010
asses and mules0.21000 heads2010
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1.0891000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5581000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs2.8411000 t2017
hides and skins2.8311000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs7 644t2017
marine fishes7 055t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas15 127M m³2017
oil, crude1 9951000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sulfur1341000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal26 799.4M kWh2016
non-renewable electricity generation99.966%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 9221000 kW2016
- other renew.61000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation26 808.4M kWh2016
total installed capacity3 9281000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium1 0001000 t2018
ferroalloys151000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4501000 t2016
petrol4 025.31000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia4681000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers319.21000 t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper121000 t2017
paper121000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 4001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production697.1M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production638.7M US$2013
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels55.030% of goods exports2016
ores and metals22.778% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Saudi Arabia1 160M US$2010
Qatar619.4M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil1 829M US$2010
China1 178M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201819 875M US$ -
201715 376M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201813 100M US$ -
201710 848M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 823M US$2017
Number of arrivals11 370 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown49 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 190.51000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers143.129per 1000 pop.2017
Computers745.8per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.3years2017
Graduates6 170units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level9 332units2017
Teachers, secondary level9 632units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending2.4% of total expenses2005
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.9per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians2.4per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Tuberculosis12per 100 000 pop.2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.1% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
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