Form of Government: Republic
Area: 86 570 sq km
Population: 10 067 100 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 116.29 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 38° N; long. 45° - 51° E
Capital: Baku=Bakı (capital) 1 229 100 inhab. (2015); Baku 2 293 100 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: manat (100 gopik)
Human development index: 0.756 (rank: 88)
President: İlham Heydar Aliev (YAP), elected 15 October 2003, in office since 31-X-2003, last reconfirmed on 11 April 2018
Prime Minister: Ali Asadov (YAP), since 8 October 2019
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 9 February 2020: New Azerbaijan Party (YAP), 70; independents, 41; others, 10; invalidated, 4
Internet: www.stat.gov.az (The State Statistical Committee)
Member of CIS, Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO observer

Azerbaijan

Azärbaycan, Azärbaycan Respublikası
Useful information

International license plate code AZ
International dialling code 00994
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .az

GMT  +4
DST  +5 (except Nagorno-Karabakh)
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Baku=Bakı 14.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Baku=Bakı 3.5/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Baku=Bakı 11/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Baku=Bakı 241
Days of rainfall (annual average) Baku=Bakı 57

Politics and current affairs

On 27 September 2020, the country attacked the territories occupied by Armenia around Nagorno-Karabakh in 1992-94. The conflict ended with an agreement on 9 November, mediated by Russian, whereby Azerbaijan regains control over the contested areas as well as part of Nagorno-Karabakh.

Geography.
Azerbaijan is bordered by Georgia and Russia to the north, by Iran to the south and by Armenia to the west. It lies on the Caspian Sea to the east with the Abşeron peninsula extending into it; the country includes the easternmost extremity of the Greater Caucasus to the north and into the hills of the Lesser Caucasus to the south. The valley of the River Kura cuts across the country. Also forming part of the country, the autonomous region of Naxçıvan is an enclave between Armenia and Iran with a small portion bordering Turkey to the west. The climate is continental, with limited rainfall and a considerable atmospheric temperature range; the regions to the south east enjoy a milder climate.

Government


Previously a federated republic of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan declared its independence on 30 August 1991. Heydar Aliev, in power since 1993, established an authoritarian regime, which was carried out after his death (in 2003) by his son Ilham Heydar. In 1997, following years of undeclared war with Armenia, which occupied part of the Azeri territory, a wide range of autonomous powers was granted to the Nagorno-Karabakh region (predominantly inhabited by Armenians). According to the Constitution of 12 November 1995, amended several times, the President of the Republic, who has wide-ranging powers, is elected by direct vote for seven years; the National Assembly (125 members) is elected for five years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2015
Army84.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes266per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides1.6per 100 000 pop.2019
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baku=Bakı1 229 100inhab.2015
Gäncä332 600inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baku2 293 100inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.32019
Death rate5.62019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Azerbaijani (Azeri)91.6%2009
other2.5%2009


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Shia)63$%2009
Muslim (Sunni)33$%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Azeri (official)
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years22.8%2020
15-29 years22.3%2020


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Economy


The country’s economy remains closely tied to the prices of crude oil and natural gas, which are the mainstays of exports. The main trading partners are Turkey, Italy and Russia. Intensive agriculture is carried out in the northern hills (tobacco, aromatic plants, vines) and on the Caspian coast (tomatoes and other vegetables, fruits plants); irrigation plants enable the cultivation of the Kura Plain (cotton, cereals). The rearing of pigs and goats takes place in the dry areas of the country. Sericulture is important. The main resources of the country are hydrocarbons (oil in Baku, Siyäzän, Şirvan and in the Caspian Sea; natural gas in Karadag, Kalmas and in the Caspian Sea). Large western and Russian companies also take part in the exploitation of these resources. Oil pipelines are active that connect Bakı with Ceyhan (a Turkish port on the Mediterranean), passing through Tbilisi (Georgia), and with Supsa (Georgia) and Novorossiysk (Russia), ports on the Black Sea; a gas pipeline is also active between Bakı and Erzurum (Anatolia). The main industries are related to oil: refineries (in Baku and Novo-Baku, linked by a pipeline at Batumi, on the Black Sea), petrochemical plants and machinery for extraction. Further sectors include the steel industry and metal working (in Sumqayıt, Gäncä), chemicals (in Baku and Sumqayıt), mechanics and electro-mechanics (in Baku, Mingäçevir and Gäncä), food (beer in Kazah, Hudat, Sumqayıt, Bärdä, Fizuli, Länkäran), textiles (in Mingäçevir), cement (in Baku, Qazax and in Naxçıvan).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)141.35index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)126.19index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 252 500units2020
Active population, Females48.8%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females56.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses26 416.3M LCU2020
Revenues26 075.4M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.334%2020
industry14.64%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.23%2019
industry53.056%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation11.84BN LCU2020
International reserves7 633.754M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land28.467%2018
forests13.414%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley988.1841000 t2019
cereals, total3 416.7651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 004.1721000 t2019
roots and tubers, total1 004.1721000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages148.5061000 t2019
carrots and turnips43.6071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry9.0051000 t2019
beans, green0.1061000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes201.8421000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1.1631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.0281000 t2019
sunflower seed33.7261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.9291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet218.5251000 t2019
tobacco6.0391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton295.2791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples292.7361000 t2019
apricots29.2521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.9161000 t2019
hazelnuts53.7931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits51.5531000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes4.7191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.5191000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley342.1251000 ha2019
maize32.761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes56.9211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.5811000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.5751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry3.9041000 ha2019
beans, green0.0471000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape14.5221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive2.7411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.0481000 ha2019
sunflower seed15.8311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.6311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet7.2331000 ha2019
tobacco3.1341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton100.1121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples29.0041000 ha2019
apricots3.2861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.5741000 ha2019
hazelnuts43.3811000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.3311000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.9591000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber425 3002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 484.1541000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes2 646.6291000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes162.4751000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs5.7041000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7 575.3811000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats613.8421000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses25.781000 heads2019
asses and mules25.8331000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.2131000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds33 3161000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey5.7811000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter23.6381000 t2018
cheese60.0721000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes729.4t2019
marine fishes70$t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas25 843.5M m³2020
oil, crude34 600.21000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper1.651000 t2018
iron ore25.51000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite222.51000 t2019
gypsum9$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone485.91000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 571.5kg2020
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iodine200t2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal22 712.28M kWh2019
- hydro1 549.35M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 7911000 kW2018
- hydro1 1201000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation23 819.38M kWh2018
total installed capacity8 067.751000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium50$1000 t2019
steel, crude381.61000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes200 000no.2007
cars2 153no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners200no.2015
fridges600no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen289.61000 t2018
petrol1 166.71000 t2020
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda0.0021000 t2014
soap0.691000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets1.31000 m²2020
cotton fabrics30$M m²2020
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear360 600pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley466.241000 t2018
cottonseed oil6.0631000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 655.5M units2016
cigars and cigarettes1 655.5M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper21.91000 t2019
paper21.91000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 2661000 t2020
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production121.272M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production539.456M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels91.736% of goods exports2018
food products3.596% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy7 044M US$2010
France1 857M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia1 145M US$2010
Turkey771.4M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202013 741M US$ -
201919 636M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202010 731M US$ -
201913 667M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 839M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 876 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown13 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 585.31000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers193.379per 1000 pop.2019
Computers80.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.472years2019
Gradautes, percentage0.2%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level645 392units2019
Students, secondary level967 454units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending19.858% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending5.2% of GDP2002
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.45per 1000 pop.2021
Physicians3.18per 1000 pop.2021
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2019
Malaria1$cases2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums240units2021
Museums, visitors711 000units2021
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.2% of GDP2020
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.7%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.5%2017
education1.8%2017
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