Form of Government: Republic
Area: 86 570 sq km
Population: 9 898 100 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 114.34 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 42° - 38° N; long. 45° - 51° E
Capital: Baku=Bakı (capital) 1 229 100 inhab. (2015); Baku 2 262 600 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: manat (100 gopik)
Human development index: 0.757 (rank: 80)
President: Ilham Heydar Aliev (YAP), elected 15 October 2003, in office since 31-X-2003, last reconfirmed on 11 April 2018
Prime Minister: Novruz Mämmädov (YAP), since 21 April 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 1 November 2015: New Azerbaijan Party (YAP), 69; independents, 43; not invalidated, 1; others, 12
Internet: www.stat.gov.az (The State Statistical Committee)
Member of CIS, Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO observer

Azerbaijan

Azärbaycan, Azärbaycan Respublikası
Useful information

International license plate code AZ
International dialling code 00994
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .az

GMT  +4
DST  +5 (except Nagorno-Karabakh)
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Baku=Bakı 14.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Baku=Bakı 3.5/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Baku=Bakı 11/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Baku=Bakı 241
Days of rainfall (annual average) Baku=Bakı 57

Politics and current affairs

The elections on 11 April 2018, which was compromised by a number of irregularities, resulted in the re-election of President I. Aliev.

Geography.
Azerbaijan is bordered by Georgia and Russia to the north, by Iran to the south and by Armenia to the west. It lies on the Caspian Sea to the east with the Abşeron peninsula extending into it; the country includes the easternmost extremity of the Greater Caucasus to the north and into the hills of the Lesser Caucasus to the south. The valley of the River Kura cuts across the country. Also forming part of the country, the autonomous region of Naxçıvan is an enclave between Armenia and Iran with a small portion bordering Turkey to the west. The climate is continental, with limited rainfall and a considerable atmospheric temperature range; the regions to the south east enjoy a milder climate.

Government


Previously a federated republic of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan declared its independence on 30 August 1991. Heydar Aliev, in power since 1993, established an authoritarian regime, which was carried out after his death (in 2003) by his son Ilham Heydar. In 1997, following years of undeclared war with Armenia, a wide range of autonomous powers was granted to the Nagorno-Karabakh region (predominantly inhabited by Armenians), although tensions remain high on the border. According to the Constitution of 12 November 1995, amended several times, the President of the Republic, who has wide-ranging powers, is elected by direct vote for seven years; the National Assembly (125 members) is elected for five years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.8%2015
Army84.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes266.2per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.7per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baku=Bakı1 229 100inhab.2015
Gäncä332 600inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baku2 262 600inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.72017
Death rate5.92017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Azerbaijani (Azeri)91.6%2009
other2.5%2009


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Shia)63%2009
Muslim (Sunni)33%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Azeri (official)
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years23%2018
15-29 years23.7%2018


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Economy


The country’s economy remains closely tied to the prices of crude oil and natural gas, which are the mainstays of exports. The main trading partners are Turkey, Italy and Russia. Intensive agriculture is carried out in the northern hills (tobacco, aromatic plants, vines) and on the Caspian coast (tomatoes and other vegetables, fruits plants); irrigation plants enable the cultivation of the Kura Plain (cotton, cereals). The rearing of pigs and goats takes place in the dry areas of the country. Sericulture is important. The main resources of the country are hydrocarbons (oil in Baku, Siyäzän, Şirvan and in the Caspian Sea; natural gas in Karadag, Kalmas). Large western and Russian companies also take part in the exploitation of these resources. Oil pipelines are active that connect Bakı with Ceyhan (a Turkish port on the Mediterranean), passing through Tbilisi (Georgia), and with Supsa (Georgia) and Novorossiysk (Russia), ports on the Black Sea; a gas pipeline is also active between Bakı and Erzurum (Anatolia).
The main industries are related to oil: refineries (in Baku and Novo-Baku, linked by a pipeline at Batumi, on the Black Sea), petrochemical plants and machinery for extraction. Further sectors include the steel industry and metal working (in Sumqayıt, Gäncä), chemicals (in Baku and Sumqayıt), mechanics and electro-mechanics (in Baku, Mingäçevir and Gäncä), food (beer in Kazah, Hudat, Sumqayıt, Bärdä, Fizuli, Länkäran), textiles (in Mingäçevir).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)141.35index2016
Balance of trade10 500M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 062 611units2018
Active population, Females48.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.2%2018
Unemployment rate, Females56.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses22 731.6M LCU2018
Revenues22 508.9M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.1%2018
industry14.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6%2017
industry53.2%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation8.36BN LCU2018
International reserves6 666M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land26.31%2015
forests13.78%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley792.1821000 t2017
cereals, total2 823.8361000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes913.8991000 t2017
roots and tubers, total913.8991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages92.0571000 t2017
carrots and turnips25.4931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry8.9931000 t2017
beans, green0.1061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes152.8431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1.681000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.0451000 t2017
sunflower seed29.7941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.7751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet410.0851000 t2017
tobacco5.3161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton207.5251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples275.0931000 t2017
apricots26.921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1.0881000 t2017
hazelnuts431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits47.3111000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes4.4921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.51000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley318.5391000 ha2017
maize35.6661000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes58.7721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.3521000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.2961000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry4.1391000 ha2017
beans, green0.0471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape14.141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive2.7771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.1011000 ha2017
sunflower seed15.1951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea0.6421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet13.7591000 ha2017
tobacco3.2121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton135.9261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples28.4011000 ha2017
apricots3.0131000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.4561000 ha2017
hazelnuts35.7821000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.2191000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.9611000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber425 3002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 476.3391000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes2 672.991000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes196.6511000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs4.8561000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep7 820.9811000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats633.3271000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses30.8541000 heads2017
asses and mules30.9161000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels0.2221000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds31 6401000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.3581000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter23.4451000 t2014
cheese58.2971000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes640t2017
total catch1 645t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas18 185M m³2017
oil, crude39 815.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2001000 t2013
iron ore25.51000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite541000 t2015
gypsum1301000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone477.61000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold4 238.5kg2018
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iodine200t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal21 396.28M kWh2016
- hydro1 939M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 6901000 kW2016
- hydro1 1051000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation23 567.28M kWh2016
total installed capacity7 8761000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium351000 t2017
steel, crude1801000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes200 000no.2007
cars1 136no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners200no.2015
fridges1 400no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1791000 t2016
petrol1 185.61000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda0.0021000 t2014
hydrochloric acid7.91000 t2003
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets1.81000 m²2018
cotton fabrics19.3M m²2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear360 600pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley514.91000 t2014
cottonseed oil2.31000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 655.5M units2016
cigars and cigarettes1 655.5M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper20.51000 t2017
paper20.51000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 444.91000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production87.3M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production468.6M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels92.216% of goods exports2018
food products3.627% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy7 044M US$2010
France1 857M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Russia1 145M US$2010
Turkey771.4M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201821 500M US$ -
201715 476M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201811 000M US$ -
20178 782M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 803M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 454 000units2017
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Communications


The Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway (826 km) was activated in 2017.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown13 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 331.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers183.688per 1000 pop.2017
Computers80.5per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.7years2014
Gradautes, percentage0.2%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level39 293units2017
Teachers, secondary level127 300units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending23.7% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending5.2% of GDP2002
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.5per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians3.3per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
Malaria1cases2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums239units2019
Museums, visitors3 171 000units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.15% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.54%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.5%2017
education1.8%2017
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