Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 83 883 sq km
Population: 8 901 064 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 106.11 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 49° - 46° N; long. 10° - 17° E
Capital: Vienna=Wien (capital) 1 911 191 inhab. (2020); Vienna 2 250 000 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.922 (rank: 18)
President of the Republic: Alexander Van der Bellen (independent), elected 4 December 2016, in office since 26 January 2017
Chancellor: Sebastian Kurz (ÖVP), since 7 January 2020
National Council: seats based on the elections of 29 September 2019: ÖVP (Austrian People’s Party, Christian democratic, centre-right), 71; SPÖ (Social Democratic Party, centre-left), 40; FPÖ (Freedom Party, nationalist right-wing), 30; The Greens, 26; NEOS-The New Austria (liberal centre), 15; others, 1
Internet: www.statistik.at (Statistik Austria)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Austria

Österreich, Republik Österreich
Useful information

International license plate code A
International dialling code 0043
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .at

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Vienna 10.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Vienna 0.5/20.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Vienna 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Vienna 615
Days of rainfall (annual average) Vienna 95

Politics and current affairs

After Summer 2020, Austria was struck by two new waves of COVID-19. To deal with the situation, the government ordered two nationwide lockdowns. The night before the autumn lockdown came into effect (22 November 2020), an Islamist terrorist attack in central Vienna killed 5 people (including the perpetrator) and injured another 23. The vaccination campaign started in December 2020. Chancellor Sebastian Kurz has announced his intention to buy doses of the Russian vaccine Sputnik V, which will however only be used following EMA (European Medicines Agency) approval. In May 2021, Kurz was investigated by anti-corruption prosecutors, accused of having lied before a parliamentary commission during investigations into the “Ibiza Scandal”, which involved Heinz-Christian Strache (former ally to Kurz’s government and ex-leader of the FPÖ). Another scandal resulted in the resignation of the labour minister, Christine Aschbacher (ÖVP), accused of having plagiarised her degree thesis.

Geography.
Austria is bordered by the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west and Germany to the north-west.
Over 70% of the country is made up of the north-western section of the Alps; the remaining part of the country is occupied by the hills and plains of the Danube basin and by the western extremity of the Pannonian Plain. The highest peaks (Grossglockner, 3797 m; Wildspitze, 3768 m) lie in the central area of the Alpine sector. The main rivers are the River Danube, the River Inn, the River Traun, the River Mur and the River Drava. The climate is continental, with Alpine characteristics in the higher areas.

Government


Austria regained full sovereignty in 1955 with the State Treaty which marked the end of military occupation after the Second World War. During the following decades political life in the country was characterized by a substantial degree of stability. Austria became a member of the European Union in 1995. On the basis of the 1920 Constitution, Austria is a federal republic made up of nine federated states (Länder), among which the capital Vienna, all enjoying a considerable degree of autonomy. Legislative power lies in the Parliament, made up of two chambers: the National Council (Nationalrat, 183 members elected by direct suffrage), for a term of five years, and the Federal Council (Bundesrat, 62 members appointed by the Diets of the federal states); in 2007 the voting age was changed to 16 years of age. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of six years which may be renewed only once. The functions of the office are mostly representative; however, the President has the power to appoint and rescind the appointment of the Chancellor, who is the head of the executive and whose appointment has to be approved by Parliament.


Defence.
With the ratification of the State Treaty of 1955, the country declared its neutrality. Austria’s purchase of Eurofighter aircraft is being investigated for fraud.


Justice.
The legal system is based on the principles of the continental European system. The highest organ is the Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof), besides which there are four Appeal Courts, 20 regional tribunals and 115 district tribunals. After the attack in Vienna, the country adopted a new anti-terrorism law aimed at preventing radicalization on the Internet.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.3%2015
Army53.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes6 490.9per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.8per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Vienna=Wien1 911 191inhab.2020
Graz291 072inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Vienna2 250 000inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The Austrian population is stationary in terms of size and tends towards ageing. The percentage of the rural population is rather high. Some ethnic minorities are protected: Croats and Hungarians in Burgenland, Czechs and Slovaks in Vienna, Slovenes in Carinthia. Finally, the Romani people are also protected. There is a significant number of foreign workers, predominantly from the Balkans and Turkey.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.62019
Death rate9.42019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total1 486 223units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Austrian83.3%2020
other8.3%2020


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic56.9%2018
other23$%2018


Languages
DESCRIPTION
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14$%2020
15-29 years17$%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The national and international measures to contain the pandemic caused the decline in GDP of 6.6% in 2020. In 2021, the economy is expected to grow by 3.5%. Despite the COVID-19 crisis, the average unemployment rate remained low (5.4% in 2020 and 5.5% in 2021).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)100.37index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)99.93index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 540 300units2020
Active population, Females46.9%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.7%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses144 666.4M LCU2020
Revenues115 327.5M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.908%2020
industry25.051%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.306%2020
industry28.688%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation40.676BN LCU2020
International reserves30 439.562M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
Farming is highly productive. The most important crops include wheat, cereals and organic products.
The production of quality wines is also significant (in Lower Austria, Vienna and Styria), as well as horticulture and fruit growing.
Austria was the first European country to ban the use of glyphosate, an herbicide considered harmful to our health.
The rearing of pigs and cattle is important (the latter in the Alpine region).
Forests.
The production of building timber and timber for industrial use is significant. In the Alpine valleys the making of wooden craftwork is widespread.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.893%2018
forests47.164%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley828.131000 t2019
cereals, total5 399.311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes751.261000 t2019
roots and tubers, total751.261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus3.321000 t2019
cabbages60$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green7.661000 t2019
broad beans, dry13.031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes309.921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed107.171000 t2019
soybeans217.781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.521000 t2019
sugar beet1 965.151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0$1000 t2017
linseed1.711000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste8.921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples239.211000 t2019
apricots11.511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts3.091000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.91000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley137.241000 ha2019
maize220.691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes23.971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.221000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green1.111000 ha2019
broad beans, dry5.711000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape48.721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed35.971000 ha2019
soybeans69.211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.251000 ha2019
sugar beet27.881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0021000 ha2018
linseed1.421000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste2.011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples6.591000 ha2019
apricots0.821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.171000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber18 903 7152019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 879.521000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 879.521000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 773.231000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep402.661000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats92.51000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total92.9791000 heads2018
horses92.9791000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds17 5651000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4$1000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter37.8111000 t2018
cheese250.2711000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes1 531.462t2019
total catch4 600.025t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Austria has modest reserves of oil and natural gas. The main crude oil refinery is in Schwechat, on the outskirts of Vienna. The country is home to one of Europe’s main natural gas hubs, located in Baumgarten, in Burgenland, a strategic centre for the transportation of natural gas going to southern and western Europe from Russia and Norway. The main pipelines running from Baumgarten transport gas to Italy (Trans Austria Gas, TAG), but also to Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, Germany and France. The country is also crossed by a section of the Transalpine Pipeline (TAL), transporting oil from Trieste (Italy) to Ingolstadt (Germany). Over 60% of electricity comes from water resources. A major part of the remaining energy needs is satisfied with imported natural gas.
Austria has a long mining tradition that is gradually disappearing: however, the largest open-air iron mine in Europe is still active at Eisenerz, in Styria (Erzberg). There are traditional, distinctive rock salt mines in the Tyrol and in the Salzkammergut.
Industry.
The industrial sector includes a vast amount of traditional as well as innovative manufacturing activities. The main sectors are chemicals, petrochemicals, metallurgy, mechanics and food.
The most important base industries include the production of cast iron, ferroalloys and metallurgy. Among the most important chemical plants are those found in Linz, Vienna, Mannswörth, Brückl and Pischelsdorf. There are numerous plants for the production of cement. The electronics industry is highly developed in Villach and in Vienna. The mechanics industry produces minutia, sewing machines, railway rolling stock, electric machines, weaponry, vehicles and bicycles (incentives were introduced to promote the purchase of electric vehicles).
The textiles sector almost entirely relies upon imported materials. The cotton industry is located for the most part in the area of the Wiener Neustadt and in the Vorarlberg (Dornbirn). Further industrial activities include leather, glass, rubber, beer, sugar and tobacco processing.
Typical manufacturing industries produce musical instruments (pianos in Vienna) and skis (in Kufstein and Ried im Innkreis). The crafts industry is flourishing.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas928.9M m³2019
oil, crude539.61000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore2 8301000 t2019
magnesite7601000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
graphite1$1000 t2020
gypsum8401000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite4 3471000 t2018
granite2 8571000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro40 436.55M kWh2019
- thermal14 503.26M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8 6301000 kW2019
- other renew.6 714.91000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation67 070.38M kWh2019
total installed capacity25 621.351000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium, secondary4721000 t2018
coke, metall.1 3161000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars104 544no.2020
commercial vehicles21 000no.2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3691000 t2018
petrol2 783.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3301000 t2019
nitrogen fertilizers2431000 t2002
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets10 5441000 m²2016
cotton fabrics95$M m²2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley979.6871000 t2018
linseed oil1.81000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes36 748M units2002
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 319.2731000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp1 628.6641000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 2001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production6 744.048M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production8 396.569M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 29 766, electrical and 
electronic equipment 20 760, vehicles and parts thereof 15 620, 
iron and steel 12 714, pharmaceuticals 9 077, plastics and articles thereof 7 668, chemicals 6 271, timber 5 096, paper and paperboard 4 691, optical and electro-medical appliances 4 397, aluminium 3 991, beverages 3 306, apparel and accessories 2 691, furniture and 
accessories 2 564, articles of base metal 2 412, gold and jewels 1 779, aircraft and parts thereof 1 722, petroleum products 1 502, 
refined copper 1 451, rolling stock 1 369


Finance and banking.
The financial sector is highly developed and is open to exchanges with Central and Eastern European countries. In 2014, the country lifted the veto on European legislation regarding savings taxation, which imposes severe limits on banking secrecy. The country was among the first in Europe to impose a tax on digital services for tech giants.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures81.069% of goods exports2019
food products7.798% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany49 238M US$2020
United States10 478M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany57 170M US$2020
China11 626M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020168 940M US$ -
2019178 670M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020171 965M US$ -
2019184 758M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Activities related to tourism in Vienna, Salzburg and the main Alpine centres (such as Innsbruck, Kitzbühel, Lienz, Villach, Sankt Anton and Lech) are widespread and of a high standard.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures13 841M US$2019
Number of arrivals31 884 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown144 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried46 476.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers281.292per 1000 pop.2019
Computers606.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and research.

Education is free and compulsory from 6 to 14 years of age.
After the primary stage (four years), two types of secondary education may be chosen: the Hauptschule, which may be followed by a technical school, and the Allgemeinbildende höhere Schule, which allows the student access to all university faculties.


Social security.
Even though it is subject to cost containment policies, the social welfare system offers complete healthcare and assistance: allowances for old age, disability, death, illness, motherhood and industrial injury.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.067years2018
Gradautes, percentage33.774%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level339 021.833units2018
Students, secondary level687 386.106units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending41.618% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending26.945% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.27per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians5.24per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums495units2019
Museums, visitors19 378 300units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.19% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.6%2019
education1$%2019
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