Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 83 882 sq km
Population: 8 822 267 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 105.18 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 49° - 46° N; long. 10° - 17° E
Capital: Vienna=Wien (capital) 1 888 776 inhab. (2018); Vienna 2 200 000 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.908 (rank: 20)
President of the Republic: Alexander Van der Bellen (independent), elected 4 December 2016, in office since 26 January 2017
Chancellor: Brigitte Bierlein (independent), since 3 June 2019
National Council: seats (July 2019 update): ÖVP (Austrian People’s Party, Christian democratic, centre-right), 61; SPÖ (Social Democratic Party, centre-left), 52; FPÖ (Freedom Party, nationalist right-wing), 50; NEOS-The New Austria (liberal centre), 10; JETZT-Pilz List (greens, populist), 6; others, 4
Internet: www.statistik.at (Statistik Austria)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Austria

Österreich, Republik Österreich
Useful information

International license plate code A
International dialling code 0043
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .at

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Vienna 10.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Vienna 0.5/20.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Vienna 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Vienna 615
Days of rainfall (annual average) Vienna 95

Politics and current affairs

The “Ibizagate” affair surrounding Heinz-Christian Strache, vice-chancellor and leader of the right-wing populist FPÖ, led to the collapse of the government led by Sebastian Kurz (ÖVP). Following the publication of a video showing Strache in Ibiza seemingly meeting a supposed family member of a Russian oligarch to offer him government contracts, the populist leader resigned on 18 May 2019. Kurz nonetheless decided to pull out of the coalition with FPÖ, attempting to form a government with the minority. However, on 27 May, a vote of no-confidence was carried out by the opposition - the Social Democratic Party - and FPÖ, forcing Kurz to resign. On 3 June 2019, the former judge Brigitte Bierlein was nominated chancellor until new elections on 29 September 2019. The current political upheavals do not seem to have had too much influence on the European elections on 26 May, which affirmed the strong rapports between the two parties.

Geography.
Austria is bordered by the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west and Germany to the north-west. Over 70% of the country is made up of the north-western section of the Alps; the remaining part of the country is occupied by the hills and plains of the Danube basin and by the western extremity of the Pannonian Plain. The highest peaks (Grossglockner, 3797 m; Wildspitze, 3768 m) lie in the central area of the Alpine sector.
The main rivers are the River Danube, the River Inn, the River Traun, the River Mur and the River Drava. The climate is continental, with Alpine characteristics in the higher areas.

Government


Austria regained full sovereignty in 1955 with the State Treaty which marked the end of military occupation after the Second World War. During the following decades political life in the country was characterized by a substantial degree of stability. Austria became a member of the European Union in 1995.
On the basis of the 1920 Constitution, Austria is a federal republic made up of nine federated states (Länder), among which the capital Vienna, all enjoying a considerable degree of autonomy. Legislative power lies in the Parliament, made up of two chambers: the National Council (Nationalrat, 183 members elected by direct suffrage), for a term of five years, and the Federal Council (Bundesrat, 62 members appointed by the Diets of the federal states); in 2007 the voting age was changed to 16 years of age. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of six years which may be renewed only once. The functions of the office are mostly representative; however, the President has the power to appoint and rescind the appointment of the Chancellor, who is the head of the executive and whose appointment has to be approved by Parliament.


Defence.
With the ratification of the State Treaty of 1955, Austria declared its neutrality. The country maintains a presence in the EU peace-keeping force in Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR).


Justice.
The legal system is based on the principles of the continental European system.
The highest organ is the Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof), besides which there are four Appeal Courts, 20 regional tribunals and 128 district tribunals.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.3%2015
Army53.3%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes6 490.9per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.6per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Vienna=Wien1 888 776inhab.2018
Graz286 292inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Vienna2 200 000inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The Austrian population is stationary in terms of size and tends towards ageing. The percentage of the rural population is rather high. Some ethnic minorities are protected: Croats and Hungarians in Burgenland, Czechs and Slovaks in Vienna, Slovenes in Carinthia. There is a significant number of foreign workers, predominantly from the Balkans and Turkey.
In 2017, the number of asylum seekers dropped drastically to around 25 000.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate102017
Death rate9.52017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total1 395 880units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Austrian84.2%2018
other8.7%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic56.9%2018
other23%2018


Languages
DESCRIPTION
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14%2018
15-29 years17.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy grew 2.7% in 2018 and unemployment fell to 4.9%. However, the slowdown in Germany could lead to a drop in the growth rate, expected to be around 1.5% in 2019 and 2020.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)100.37index2016
Balance of trade-8 601.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 539 000units2018
Active population, Females46.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females45%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses121 306.4M LCU2018
Revenues120 570M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.7%2018
industry25.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.3%2018
industry28.5%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation33.53BN LCU2018
International reserves23 190.7M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
Farming is highly productive. The most important crops include wheat, cereals and organic products.
The production of quality wines is also significant (in Lower Austria, Vienna and Styria), as well as horticulture and fruit growing.
Austria was the first European country to ban the use of glyphosate, an herbicide considered harmful to our health.
The rearing of pigs and cattle is important (the latter in the Alpine region).
Forests.
The production of building timber and timber for industrial use is significant. In the Alpine valleys the making of wooden craftwork is widespread.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land17.11%2015
forests46.88%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley782.0291000 t2017
cereals, total4 874.9211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes653.41000 t2017
roots and tubers, total653.41000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus3.0381000 t2017
cabbages61.791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green6.1561000 t2017
broad beans, dry22.9621000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes331.4281000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed116.8351000 t2017
soybeans193.4161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.441000 t2017
sugar beet2 993.711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 t2017
linseed1.7861000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste3.3841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples185.2441000 t2017
apricots6.4841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts2.6331000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.91000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley138.9031000 ha2017
maize209.4761000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes22.9911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.2461000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.8361000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.4811000 ha2017
broad beans, dry10.2961000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape48.0541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed40.5021000 ha2017
soybeans64.4671000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.2481000 ha2017
sugar beet42.6841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0011000 ha2017
linseed1.6411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.6731000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples8.1321000 ha2014
apricots0.7881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.1421000 ha2014
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber17 647 1182017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 954.3911000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 954.3911000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 792.8031000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep378.3811000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats82.7351000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total90.3541000 heads2017
horses90.3541000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds17 4651000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.91000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter34.1651000 t2014
cheese219.0961000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes1 500.5t2017
total catch4 211.6t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Austria has modest reserves of oil and natural gas. The main crude oil refinery is in Schwechat, on the outskirts of Vienna. The country is home to one of Europe’s main natural gas hubs, located in Baumgarten, in Burgenland, a strategic centre for the transportation of natural gas going to southern and western Europe from Russia and Norway. The main pipelines crossing Austria transport gas to Germany and Italy (Trans Austria Gas, TAG).
The country is also crossed by a section of the Transalpine Pipeline (TAL), transporting oil from Trieste (Italy) to Ingolstadt (Germany).
Over 60% of electricity comes from water resources. A major part of the remaining energy needs is satisfied with imported natural gas.
Austria has a long mining tradition that is gradually disappearing: however, the largest open-air iron mine in Europe is still active at Eisenerz, in Styria (Erzberg). There are traditional, distinctive rock salt mines in the Tyrol and in the Salzkammergut.
Industry.
The industrial sector includes a vast amount of traditional as well as innovative manufacturing activities. The main sectors are chemicals, petrochemicals, metallurgy, mechanics and food. The most important base industries include the production of cast iron, ferroalloys and metallurgy. Among the most important chemical plants are those found in Linz, Vienna, Mannswörth, Brückl and Pischelsdorf. There are numerous plants for the production of cement. The electronics industry is highly developed in Villach and in Vienna. The mechanics industry produces minutia, sewing machines, railway rolling stock, electric machines, weaponry, vehicles and bicycles.
The textiles sector almost entirely relies upon imported materials. The cotton industry is located for the most part in the area of the Wiener Neustadt and in the Vorarlberg (Dornbirn). Further industrial activities include leather, glass, rubber, beer, sugar and tobacco processing.
Typical manufacturing industries produce musical instruments (pianos in Vienna) and skis (in Kufstein and Ried im Innkreis). The crafts industry is flourishing.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas1 269M m³2017
oil, crude660.11000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore2 7771000 t2016
magnesite6001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
graphite0.151000 t2016
gypsum6741000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite3 0711000 t2016
granite2 8901000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro37 693M kWh2016
- thermal12 737M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8 4581000 kW2016
- other renew.5 9251000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation60 784.1M kWh2016
total installed capacity24 7891000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium, secondary470.91000 t2016
coke, metall.1 3511000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars144 500no.2018
commercial vehicles20 400no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3331000 t2016
petrol2 783.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia4311000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers2431000 t2002
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets10 5441000 m²2016
cotton fabrics95M m²2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley920.61000 t2014
margarine74.71000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes36 748M units2002
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 269.0731000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp1 597.6541000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 6001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production5 683.5M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production7 075.9M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 29 766, electrical and 
electronic equipment 20 760, vehicles and parts thereof 15 620, 
iron and steel 12 714, pharmaceuticals 9 077, plastics and articles thereof 7 668, chemicals 6 271, timber 5 096, paper and paperboard 4 691, optical and electro-medical appliances 4 397, aluminium 3 991, beverages 3 306, apparel and accessories 2 691, furniture and 
accessories 2 564, articles of base metal 2 412, gold and jewels 1 779, aircraft and parts thereof 1 722, petroleum products 1 502, 
refined copper 1 451, rolling stock 1 369


Finance and banking.
The financial sector is highly developed and is open to exchanges with Central and Eastern European countries. In 2014, the country lifted the veto on European legislation regarding savings taxation, which imposes severe limits on banking secrecy. The country aims to be among the first in Europe to impose a tax on digital services for tech giants.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures83.007% of goods exports2017
food products7.619% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany53 091M US$2018
United States12 486M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany65 338M US$2018
Italy11 718M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018184 722M US$ -
2017168 027M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018193 323M US$ -
2017175 755M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Activities related to tourism in Vienna, Salzburg and the main Alpine centres (such as Innsbruck, Kitzbühel, Lienz, Villach, Sankt Anton and Lech) are widespread and of a high standard.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures12 878M US$2017
Number of arrivals29 460 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown144 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried16 171.61000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers287.472per 1000 pop.2017
Computers606.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and research.

Education is free and compulsory from 6 to 14 years of age.
After the primary stage (four years), two types of secondary education may be chosen: the Hauptschule, which may be followed by a technical school, and the Allgemeinbildende höhere Schule, which allows the student access to all university faculties.


Social security.
Even though it is subject to cost containment policies, the social welfare system offers complete healthcare and assistance: allowances for old age, disability, death, illness, motherhood and industrial injury.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.3years2017
Gradautes, percentage32.4%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level33 438units2017
Teachers, secondary level73 674units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending42.1% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending26.6% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds7.4per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians5.2per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums553units2016
Museums, visitors18 172 200units2016
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.16% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.9%2017
education0.9%2017
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