Form of Government: Federal state
Area: 7 687 938 sq km
Population: 25 688 771 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 3.34 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 44° S; long. 113° - 154° E
Capital: Canberra (capital) 431 380 inhab. (2020); Canberra-Queanbeyan 448 621 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: Australian dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.944 (rank: 8)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Scott Morrison (Liberal Party), since 24 August 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 18 May 2019: Liberal/National Coalition (formed by Liberal Party, Liberal National Party of Queensland, National Party of Australia and Country Liberal Party of the Northern Territory), 77; ALP (Australian Labor Party), 68; others, 6
Internet: www.abs.gov.au (Australian Bureau of Statistics)
Member of ANZUS, APEC, Commonwealth, EBRD, OECD, SPC, UN, WTO

Australia

Australia, Commonwealth of Australia
Useful information

International license plate code AUS
International dialling code 0061
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .au

GMT Canberra +10; Darwin +9.30; Adelaide +9.30; Perth +8; Tasmania +10; Lord Howe Island +10.30
DST Canberra +11; Darwin not applied; Adelaide +10.30; Perth not applied; Tasmania +11; Lord Howe Island +11
DST duration (start-end) early October-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Sidney 18.2; Alice Springs 20.9; Darwin 27.7; Perth 17.8; Melbourne 15.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sidney 22.5/13; Alice Springs 28.5/12; Darwin 28.5/25; Perth 24/13; Melbourne 20.5/9.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sidney 6.5/8; Alice Springs 9.5/10; Darwin 10/7; Perth 5/10.5; Melbourne 3.5/7.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sidney 1250; Alice Springs 293; Darwin 1699; Perth 870; Melbourne 600
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sidney 124; Alice Springs 39; Darwin 110; Perth 113; Melbourne 142

Politics and current affairs

Relations with China, whose political and economic influence causes concern in the country, deteriorated in 2020-21, leading to diplomatic rifts and commercial reprisals.

Geography.
Surrounded by the sea, to the N and E it is lapped by the Pacific Ocean (Arafura Sea, Coral Sea and Tasman Sea) and to the S and W by the Indian Ocean.
The coasts are low-lying and lacking in ports for the most part; the Great Barrier Reef stretches for over 2000 km opposite the north-eastern shoreline. The region can be divided into three separate areas. The Great Dividing Range consists of a series of fold mountain chains, which form a line along the eastern edge of the country, then continuing into Tasmania and culminating in the Australian Alps (Mount Kosciuszko, 2229 m). In the middle a lowlands area opens out, corresponding for the most part to the basins of the Murray-Darling and Lake Eyre. To the W a series of tablelands stretch out at 400-500 m as well as vast desert zones. The territory is lacking in water and the rivers are mostly torrential.
The climate is principally desert or semi-desert. Precipitation is only abundant in the marginal areas. The summers are characterised by widespread drought practically everywhere.

Government


An independent federal state within the British Commonwealth (since 1901), Australia comprises of 6 states (each with an elective parliament and governor) and 3 territories (North, Capital and Jervis Bay). Some outer territories are not part of the Australian federation, but are administered by it (or by individual federated states). After 1941 the Labor Party and the Liberal Party have taken turns at running the government; the Liberal Party also won the 2013 elections. From 2001 to 2007 the country took part in military operations in Iraq alongside the USA. Australia has led some international policing missions in the Pacific area (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea) and in particular in East Timor, following the country’s independence.
Based on the 1901 Constitution, the Head of State is the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, represented by a governor-general. The Federal Executive Council is responsible before Parliament, which consists of two houses: the Senate (76 members, 12 for each state, elected by direct suffrage for 6 years, which may be renewed, by half, every 3, and 2 for each territory, elected for 3 years) and the House of Representatives (151 members, no fewer than 5 for each state, elected by direct suffrage for 3 years); voting is mandatory. The proposal to become a republic, with a president elected by Parliament, was rejected by a referendum (on 6 November, 1999).


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.


Justice.
The legal system is based on British Common Law. In addition to the High Court and federal tribunals, each single state has its own supreme court and minor tribunals.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force25$%2015
Army51.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 326.1per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2019
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brisbane1 272 999inhab.2020
Gold Coast (QLD)635 191inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Sydney5 367 206inhab.2020
Greater Melbourne5 159 211inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There is a very high urban population percentage. Population growth started to rise again after 2001, at a higher rate than in other industrialized countries. An immigration control policy is upheld (especially immigrants coming from South East Asia), made even harsher in 2013 and in 2017 by the right-wing government.
Almost 30% of the population was born abroad. The Aborigines are still marginalized and their life expectancy is about 8 years lower than the population of European origin.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate11.72020
Death rate5$2020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total3 245 913units2011
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white88.8%2016
Asian8.4%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist30.1%2016
Catholic22.6%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.7%2020
15-29 years20.4%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy is dependent on exports of raw materials; these have guaranteed over two decades of growth, but were affected by the drop in prices due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to a heavy recession in 2020, followed by a positive rebound in 2021.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)104.35index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)88.74index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 547 130units2020
Active population, Females47.2%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females46.4%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses786 259M LCU2020
Revenues681 631M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.762%2020
industry19.285%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.027%2019
industry27.437%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation98.562BN LCU2020
International reserves43 012.629M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Agriculture is highly productive and diversified, but is heavily affected by climatic variations and, in particular, by recurring periods of drought. Australia is one of the world’s leading exporters of agricultural products. Cereal production is abundant, especially wheat and barley (in the southern states). In terms of industrial crops sugar cane and cotton should be pointed out (especially in Queensland and New South Wales) as well as rapeseed (in the southern states). Fruit (and citrus fruit) and chickpea crops are widespread: vines thrive in the states of Victoria and South Australia and tobacco is cultivated in Queensland, Victoria and New South Wales. Eucalyptus, acacia and casuarina are the predominant essences.
Livestock and fishing.
Animal farming, concentrated in the eastern and southwestern areas of the country, is a key resource for the Australian economy. In particular, the country’s sheep farming puts it among the world’s leading wool producers. The fishing industry focuses on superior species (crustaceans, tuna and molluscs); aquaculture produces mainly salmon and molluscs.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.174%2018
forests17.867%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley8 818.9461000 t2019
cereals, total29 238.7041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 225.2741000 t2019
roots and tubers, total1 304.1841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus7.681000 t2019
cabbages80.6191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry73.471000 t2019
beans, green44.0921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 553.6021000 t2019
raisins30$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives86.1921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts14.1611000 t2019
rapeseed2 365.8391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0051000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.6511000 t2019
sugar cane32 415.3521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1 627.0621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed6$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples265.151000 t2019
apricots8.3771000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds146.411000 t2019
pistachios1.5591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits518.4041000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.5371000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados79.5331000 t2019
bananas310.161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms48.681000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley4 436.5881000 ha2019
maize58.9491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes32.4131000 ha2019
sweet potatoes2.1681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.5151000 ha2019
carrots and turnips5.0671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry85.6591000 ha2019
beans, green8.1211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape134.1221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive35.9641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4.3441000 ha2019
rapeseed2 119.8361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0111000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.2771000 ha2019
sugar cane433.1541000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton303.4841000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed7$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples16.6121000 ha2019
apricots4.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds37.9031000 ha2019
pistachios1.4881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.7881000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.0531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados16.8461000 ha2019
bananas11.9021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.1351000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber36 799 4762019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle24 723.4581000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes24 723.4581000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 319.0331000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep65 755.4081000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 897.191000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1.9241000 heads2019
asses and mules1.9241000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds114 3461000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey10.6951000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter100.9661000 t2018
cheese3771000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals12.782t2019
crustaceans and molluscs64 169.112t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The subsoil is abundant in minerals. The main oil extraction isn’t enough to meet the national needs. The main deposits are located in Moonie, Alton and Conloi (QLD), on Barrow Island and in the Bass Strait.
Natural gas, which is partly liquefied for export, is supplied by the fields in the Bass Strait, the continental shelf of Queensland and southern Australia, and off Barrow Island; since 2006, an agreement has also been in place with East Timor for the joint exploitation of the offshore fields in the Timor Sea.
The most important coal deposits are located in New South Wales (Newcastle, Lithgow, Cessnock and Burragorang), Queensland (Ipswich, Callide and Collinsville) and in Western Australia (Collie); the Morwell lignite mines are important, too.
Australia is home to over a quarter of the world’s uranium reserves (deposits in Ranger, Kintyre, Olympic Dam, Moline, Mary Kathleen, South Alligator River and Rum Jungle). Iron ore bodies are found in Pilbara, Mount Tom Price, Mount Goldsworthy, Koolanooka, Mount Newman and Koolyanobbing (WA), Savage River (TAS) and Iron Knob (SA).
The country is the world’s leading producer of lithium (WA). Manganese deposits are worked in Pilbara, Peak Hill and Groote Eylandt. Large copper mines are located in Mount Isa and Mount Morgan (QLD), Mount Lyell (TAS) and Tennant Creek (NT); tin mines in Mount Bischoff (TAS) and Herberton (QLD). Lead is extracted in Broken Hill (NSW), Zeehan (TAS), Mount Isa (and elsewhere associated with silver); zinc in Broken Hill; tungsten in Tasmania; and nickel in Kambalda and Scotia. Bauxite comes from Boddington, Huntly, Willowdale (WA), Gove (NT) and Weipa (QLD). Of great strategic importance at international level is the extraction of rare earths, of which the country is one of the world’s largest producers.
Diamonds are extracted in Argyle (WA) and Bow River; gold in Broken Hill, Kalgoorlie and Tennant Creek; silver in Broken Hill, Silverton, Chillagoe, Herberton, Zeehan, Mount Lyell and Mount Farrel; opals in Lightning Ridge, Coober Pedy and Andamooka (SA).
Energy and industry.
Electricity is obtained in large part from thermal power plants fed mainly by coal. Hydroelectric production is concentrated in New South Wales (hydropower plants in the Snowy Mountains) and Tasmania.
The iron and steel industry has facilities in Whyalla, Newcastle, Port Kembla, Unanderra and Western Port. Copper production is concentrated in Port Kembla, Port Pirie, Mount Isa, Townsville; lead in Port Pirie, Mount Isa, Melbourne and Cockle Creek; zinc in Cockle Creek, Port Pirie and Risdon; aluminium in Bell Bay, Kwinana, Port Henry and Kurri Kurri.
The leading chemical industries are situated in Sydney, Melbourne, Ballarat, Salisbury, Saint Mary, Villawood, Rhodes, Matraville, Geelong, Brisbane, Adelaide, Kwinana, Newcastle, Penrith and Port Kembla.
Man-made and synthetic textile fibres are produced in Tomago, Penrith, Bayswater and Waterloo.
In terms of the mechanical industries the aeronautic industry is significant (in Melbourne and Sydney) as well as the car (in Dandenong and Rushcutters Bay, Sydney) and shipbuilding industries.
Other important processing industries include textiles, food conservation, sugar and paper.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal444 795.61000 t2019
coal, total476 719.31000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony2$1000 t2020
bauxite110 0001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite1.981000 t2019
bentonite90$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds2001000 ct2020
diamonds, industrial - ct12 0001000 ct2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal199 279.06M kWh2019
- other renew.38 861.8M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal45 5811000 kW2018
- other renew.24 067.11000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation253 627.91M kWh2019
total installed capacity71 953.11000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina21 0001000 t2020
aluminium1 6001000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars88 195no.2017
commercial vehicles4 730no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen98$1000 t2018
petrol16 107.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 3001000 t2020
nitrogen fertilizers423.41000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets44 1861000 m²2008
cotton fabrics8$M m²2006
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear5 596 000pairs2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 626.11000 t2018
coconut oil0.9141000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes and tobacco18 785t2004
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 0771000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp1 5211000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement10 2001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production6 956.257M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production20 432.48M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Australia is among the largest exporters of minerals and agricultural produce. Its main imports are vehicles, machinery, computer and telecommunications equipment, and oil products. Its main trading partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the USA.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
iron ores 49 282, coal and its products 40 575, natural gas 20 493, 
gold 13 091, meat 9 119, chemicals 6 774, crude oil and petroleum products 5 872, wheat 4 655, machinery 4 652, copper ores 3 647, aluminium 3 149, refined copper 2 555, pharmaceuticals 2 530, oil seeds 1 907, vehicles and parts thereof 1 804, electrical and electronic equipment 3 117, optical and electro-medical appliances 3 084, 
wool and its products 2 872, legumes 2 248, wine 2 052, iron and steel 1 819, milk and dairy products 1 807, jewels and precious stones 1 753, timber 1 657, barley 1 618, cotton 1 605, food preparations 1 560, aircraft and parts thereof 1 526, fruit 1 466, zinc ores 1 347, 
unwrought zinc 1 286, live animals 1 238, precious metals 1 224, fish and crustaceans 1 068, unwrought lead 941, plastics 904, paper and paperboard 802


Finance and banking.
The Reserve Bank of Australia is the central bank. Financial services are highly developed.
The Australian Security Exchange, based in Sydney, is one of the main stock exchanges in the Pacific area.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals32.76% of goods exports2019
fuels18.927% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China100 086M US$2020
Japan30 332M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China61 054M US$2020
United States25 142M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020250 352M US$ -
2019271 005M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020208 446M US$ -
2019221 564M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism.
Thanks to low air fares and the efficiency of the local tourism board, international tourism plays a significant role. The main tourism comes from New Zealand, China, Japan, the European Union and the USA.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures41 430M US$2019
Number of arrivals9 466 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The road and rail networks are efficient and extensive, especially along the East Coast. Air travel is highly developed, with more than 600 airports.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown547 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried76 850.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers347.291per 1000 pop.2019
Computers766per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
The governments of the individual states are responsible for primary and secondary educational and technical training. The federal government finances most of the university education and organises special courses to help Aborigine and immigrant students. School attendance is, as a rule, mandatory from 5/6 to 15/17 years of age (depending on the state), apart from young people living in very isolated areas (for whom distance learning systems have been implemented over the Internet and by satellite).
The quality of the country’s universities attracts a growing number of overseas students, especially from East Asia, which is having a positive effect on the balance of payments, too.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling20.509years2018
Gradautes, percentage47.13%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 247 875units2018
Students, secondary level2 379 962units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending26.398% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending16.71% of GDP2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.84per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.75per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.06%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums1 456units2008
Museums, visitors30 717 500units2008
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.875% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.1%2015-16
education3.1%2015-16
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