Form of Government: Federal state
Area: 7 687 943 sq km
Population: 24 698 634 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 3.21 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 44° S; long. 113° - 154° E
Capital: Canberra (capital) 403 468 inhab. (2016); Canberra-Queanbeyan 440 543 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: Australian dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.939 (rank: 2)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Scott Morrison (Liberal Party), since 24 August 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 2 July 2016: Liberal/National Coalition (formed by Liberal Party, Liberal National Party of Queensland, National Party of Australia and Country Liberal Party of the Northern Territory), 76; ALP (Australian Labor Party), 69; The Greens, 1; Nick Xenophon Team (centre), 1; Katter's Australian Party (conservative), 1; independents, 2
Internet: www.abs.gov.au (Australian Bureau of Statistics)
Member of ANZUS, APEC, Commonwealth, EBRD, OECD, SPC, UN, WTO

Australia

Australia, Commonwealth of Australia
Useful information

International license plate code AUS
International dialling code 0061
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .au

GMT Canberra +10; Darwin +9.30; Adelaide +9.30; Perth +8; Tasmania +10; Lord Howe Island +10.30
DST Canberra +11; Darwin not applied; Adelaide +10.30; Perth not applied; Tasmania +11; Lord Howe Island +11
DST duration (start-end) early October-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Sidney 18.2; Alice Springs 20.9; Darwin 27.7; Perth 17.8; Melbourne 15.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sidney 22.5/13; Alice Springs 28.5/12; Darwin 28.5/25; Perth 24/13; Melbourne 20.5/9.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sidney 6.5/8; Alice Springs 9.5/10; Darwin 10/7; Perth 5/10.5; Melbourne 3.5/7.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sidney 1250; Alice Springs 293; Darwin 1699; Perth 870; Melbourne 600
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sidney 124; Alice Springs 39; Darwin 110; Perth 113; Melbourne 142

Politics and current affairs

The political life of the country is influenced by the precarious situation of the coalition government, which counts on a narrow majority.

Geography.
Surrounded by the sea, to the N and E it is lapped by the Pacific Ocean (Arafura Sea, Coral Sea and Tasman Sea) and to the S and W by the Indian Ocean.
The coasts are low-lying and lacking in ports for the most part; the Great Barrier Reef stretches for over 2000 km opposite the north-eastern shoreline. The region can be divided into three separate areas. The Great Dividing Range consists of a series of fold mountain chains, which form a line along the eastern edge of the country, then continuing into Tasmania and culminating in the Australian Alps (Mount Kosciuszko, 2229 m).
In the middle a lowlands area opens out, corresponding for the most part to the basins of the Murray-Darling and Lake Eyre. To the W a series of tablelands stretch out at 400-500 m as well as vast desert zones. The territory is lacking in water and the rivers are mostly torrential.
The climate is principally desert or semi-desert. Precipitation is only abundant in the marginal areas. The summers are characterised by widespread drought practically everywhere.

Government


An independent federal state within the British Commonwealth (since 1901), Australia comprises of 6 states (each with an elective parliament and governor) and 3 territories (North, Capital and Jervis Bay). Some outer territories are not part of the Australian federation, but are administered by it (or by individual federated states).
After 1941 the Labor Party and the Liberal Party have taken turns at running the government; the Liberal Party also won the 2013 elections. From 2001 to 2007 the country took part in military operations in Iraq alongside the USA. Australia has led some international policing missions in the Pacific area (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea) and in particular in East Timor, following the country’s independence.
Based on the 1901 Constitution, the Head of State is the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, represented by a governor-general. The Federal Executive Council is responsible before Parliament, which consists of two houses: the Senate (76 members, 12 for each state, elected by direct suffrage for 6 years, which may be renewed, by half, every 3, and 2 for each territory, elected for 3 years) and the House of Representatives (150 members, no fewer than 5 for each state, elected by direct suffrage for 3 years); voting is mandatory. The proposal to become a republic, with a president elected by Parliament, was rejected by a referendum (on 6 November, 1999).


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.


Justice.
The legal system is based on British Common Law. In addition to the High Court and federal tribunals, each single state has its own supreme court and minor tribunals.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force25%2015
Army51.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 488per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brisbane1 206 607inhab.2017
Gold Coast (QLD)592 330inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Sydney5 029 768inhab.2016
Greater Melbourne4 725 316inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There is a very high urban population percentage. Population growth started to rise again after 2001, at a higher rate than in other industrialized countries. An immigration control policy is upheld (especially immigrants coming from South East Asia), made even harsher in 2013 and in 2017 by the right-wing government. Almost 30% of the population was born abroad. The Aborigines are still marginalized and their life expectancy is about 10 years lower than the population of European origin.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.32017
Death rate6.52017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total3 245 913units2011
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white88.8%2016
Asian8.4%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist30.1%2016
Catholic22.6%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years17.8%2017
15-29 years20%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Despite maintaining stable growth, the country is feeling the effect of the drop in prices of raw materials and the reduced demand by East Asia, particularly China.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)104.35index2016
Balance of trade2 249M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 971 320units2017
Active population, Females46.7%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.6%2017
Unemployment rate, Females47.4%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses634 155M LCU2017
Revenues629 299M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.6%2017
industry19.5%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.6%2016
industry24.3%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation78.2BN LCU2017
International reserves66 597.7M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Agriculture is highly productive and diversified, but depends heavily on weather conditions and, in particular, on regular periods of drought. Australia is one of the world’s leading exporters of agricultural products. Cereal production is abundant, especially wheat and barley.
In terms of industrial crops sugar cane and cotton should be pointed out (especially in Queensland and New South Wales) as well as flax (in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria). Fruit (and citrus fruit) growing is widespread: vines thrive in the states of Victoria and South Australia and tobacco is cultivated in Queensland, Victoria and New South Wales. Eucalyptus, acacia and casuarina are the predominant essences.
Livestock and fishing.
Animal farming, concentrated in the eastern and southwestern areas of the country, is a key resource for the Australian economy. In particular, the country’s sheep farming puts it among the world’s leading wool producers.
The fishing industry focuses on superior species (crustaceans, tuna and molluscs); aquaculture produces mainly salmon and molluscs.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.05%2015
forests16.24%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley8 992.2741000 t2016
cereals, total35 230.3761000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 130.1751000 t2016
roots and tubers, total1 202.2231000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus7.5811000 t2016
cabbages87.51000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry37.9581000 t2016
beans, green35.6011000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 772.9111000 t2016
raisins301000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives75.0831000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts19.5831000 t2016
rapeseed2 9441000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0051000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.5281000 t2016
sugar cane34 403.0041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1 518.6781000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed61000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples308.2981000 t2016
apricots8.71000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds72.9021000 t2016
pistachios1.3781000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits580.6391000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes1.8161000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados67.61000 t2016
bananas354.2411000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms50.3871000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley4 107.6481000 ha2016
maize53.2811000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes27.9681000 ha2016
sweet potatoes2.071000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.3431000 ha2016
carrots and turnips5.2451000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry38.0661000 ha2016
beans, green6.7951000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape136.271000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive32.7471000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts6.9321000 ha2016
rapeseed2 3571000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0111000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.2251000 ha2016
sugar cane447.2041000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton280.4221000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed61000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples19.2121000 ha2016
apricots8.7551000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds20.551000 ha2016
pistachios1.3531000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits29.0311000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.1571000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados14.1611000 ha2016
bananas16.6121000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.1441000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber34 133 5612016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle24 971.3491000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes24 971.3491000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 294.2451000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep67 543.0921000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 839.5491000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1.9221000 heads2016
asses and mules1.9221000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds92 2301000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey13.1981000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter125.1241000 t2014
cheese311.461000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals4.104t2016
crustaceans and molluscs69 550.154t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The subsoil is abundant in minerals. The main oil extraction isn’t enough to meet the national needs. The main deposits are located in Moonie, Alton and Conloi (QLD), on Barrow Island and in the Bass Strait.
Natural gas, which is partly liquefied for export, is supplied by the fields in the Bass Strait, the continental shelf of Queensland and southern Australia, and off Barrow Island; since 2006, an agreement has also been in place with East Timor for the joint exploitation of the offshore fields in the Timor Sea.
The most important coal deposits are located in New South Wales (Newcastle, Lithgow, Cessnock and Burragorang), Queensland (Ipswich, Callide and Collinsville) and in Western Australia (Collie); the Morwell lignite mines are important, too.
Australia is home to over a quarter of the world’s uranium reserves (deposits in Ranger, Kintyre, Olympic Dam, Moline, Mary Kathleen, South Alligator River and Rum Jungle). Iron ore bodies are found in Pilbara, Mount Tom Price, Mount Goldsworthy, Koolanooka, Mount Newman and Koolyanobbing (WA), Savage River (TAS) and Iron Knob (SA). Manganese deposits are worked in Pilbara, Peak Hill and Groote Eylandt. Large copper mines are located in Mount Isa and Mount Morgan (QLD), Mount Lyell (TAS) and Tennant Creek (NT); tin mines in Mount Bischoff (TAS) and Herberton (QLD). Lead is extracted in Broken Hill, Zeehan, Mount Isa and Read-Rosebery (and elsewhere associated with silver); zinc in Broken Hill; asbestos in Wittenoom Gorge; tungsten in Tasmania; and nickel in Kambalda and Scotia. Bauxite comes from Gippsland, Gove (NT), Weipa (QLD) and the Darling Range area (WA).
Diamonds are extracted in Argyle (WA) and Bow River; gold in Broken Hill, Kalgoorlie and Tennant Creek; silver in Broken Hill, Silverton, Chillagoe, Herberton, Zeehan, Mount Lyell and Mount Farrel; opals in Lightning Ridge, Coober Pedy and Andamooka (SA).
Energy and industry.
Electricity is mostly obtained from thermal power plants. Hydroelectric production is concentrated in New South Wales (hydropower plant in the Snowy Mountains) and Tasmania.
The iron and steel industry has facilities in Whyalla, Newcastle, Port Kembla, Unanderra and Western Port. Copper production is concentrated in Port Kembla, Queenstown (TAS), Townsville and Mount Morgan; lead in Port Pirie, Mount Isa, Melbourne and Cockle Creek; zinc in Cockle Creek, Port Pirie and Risdon; aluminium in Bell Bay (TAS), Kwinana (WA), Port Henry (VIC) and Kurri Kurri (NSW).
The leading chemical industries are situated in Sydney, Melbourne, Ballarat, Salisbury, Saint Mary, Villawood, Rhodes, Matraville, Geelong, Brisbane, Adelaide, Kwinana, Newcastle, Penrith and Port Kembla.
Man-made and synthetic textile fibres are produced in Tomago, Penrith, Bayswater and Waterloo.
In terms of the mechanical industries the aeronautic industry is significant (in Melbourne and Sydney) as well as the car (in Dandenong and Rushcutters Bay, Sydney) and shipbuilding industries. Other important processing industries include textiles, food conservation, sugar and paper.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal443 321.51000 t2015
coal, total481 296.51000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony51000 t2017
bauxite83 0001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite61000 t2015
bentonite2301000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2101000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds2801000 ct2017
diamonds, industrial - ct14 0001000 ct2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal204 798.74M kWh2015
- other renew.21 044M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal48 8841000 kW2015
- other renew.9 4221000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation239 203.74M kWh2015
total installed capacity67 0301000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina20 6001000 t2017
aluminium1 4901000 t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars88 195no.2017
commercial vehicles10 437no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1181000 t2015
petrol16 107.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 3001000 t2017
nitrogen fertilizers874.11000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets44 1861000 m²2008
cotton fabrics8M m²2006
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear5 596 000pairs2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 6911000 t2014
coconut oil0.91000 t2011
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes and tobacco18 785t2004
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 005.2021000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp1 385.2021000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 1001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production9 069.9M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production27 609.3M US$2013
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Australia is one of the main exporters of minerals and agricultural produce.
Its main imports are vehicles, machinery, computer and telecommunications equipment, and oil products. Its main trading partners are China, Japan and the USA.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
iron ores 49 282, coal and its products 40 575, natural gas 20 493, 
gold 13 091, meat 9 119, chemicals 6 774, crude oil and petroleum products 5 872, wheat 4 655, machinery 4 652, copper ores 3 647, aluminium 3 149, refined copper 2 555, pharmaceuticals 2 530, oil seeds 1 907, vehicles and parts thereof 1 804, electrical and electronic equipment 3 117, optical and electro-medical appliances 3 084, 
wool and its products 2 872, legumes 2 248, wine 2 052, iron and steel 1 819, milk and dairy products 1 807, jewels and precious stones 1 753, timber 1 657, barley 1 618, cotton 1 605, food preparations 1 560, aircraft and parts thereof 1 526, fruit 1 466, zinc ores 1 347, 
unwrought zinc 1 286, live animals 1 238, precious metals 1 224, fish and crustaceans 1 068, unwrought lead 941, plastics 904, paper and paperboard 802


Finance and banking.
The Reserve Bank of Australia is the central bank. Financial services are highly developed.
The Australian Security Exchange, based in Sydney, is one of the main stock exchanges in the Pacific area.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals31.718% of goods exports2016
fuels27.653% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China68 096M US$2017
Japan24 008M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China49 971M US$2017
United States23 613M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017230 829.350M US$ -
2016192 488.502M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017228 580M US$ -
2016195 981M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism.
Thanks to low air fares and the efficiency of the local tourism board, international tourism plays a significant role.
The main tourism comes from New Zealand, China, Japan, the European Union and the USA.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures29 768M US$2016
Number of arrivals8 263 000units2016
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Communications


Transport.
The road and rail networks are efficient and extensive, especially along the East Coast. Air travel is highly developed, with more than 400 airports.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown547 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried74 257.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers324.041per 1000 pop.2017
Computers766per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
The governments of the individual states are responsible for primary and secondary educational and technical training. The federal government finances most of the university education and organises special courses to help Aborigine and immigrant students. School attendance is, as a rule, mandatory from 5 to 15 years of age (with small variation depending on the state), apart from young people living in very isolated areas (for whom distance learning systems have been implemented over the Internet and by satellite).
The quality of the country’s universities attracts a growing number of overseas students, especially from East Asia, which is having a positive effect on the balance of payments, too.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling22.9years2016
Gradautes, percentage43.7%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level104 603units1998
Teachers, secondary level104 477units1998
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending27.2% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending19.1% of GDP2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.8per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians3.6per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2016
HIV, total0.06%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums1 456units2008
Museums, visitors30 717 500units2008
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.93% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.5%2010-11
education4%2010-11
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