Form of Government: Federal state
Area: 7 687 943 sq km
Population: 25 097 693 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 3.27 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 44° S; long. 113° - 154° E
Capital: Canberra (capital) 411 667 inhab. (2017); Canberra-Queanbeyan 448 621 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: Australian dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.939 (rank: 3)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Scott Morrison (Liberal Party), since 24 August 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 18 May 2019: Liberal/National Coalition (formed by Liberal Party, Liberal National Party of Queensland, National Party of Australia and Country Liberal Party of the Northern Territory), 77; ALP (Australian Labor Party), 68; others, 6
Internet: www.abs.gov.au (Australian Bureau of Statistics)
Member of ANZUS, APEC, Commonwealth, EBRD, OECD, SPC, UN, WTO

Australia

Australia, Commonwealth of Australia
Useful information

International license plate code AUS
International dialling code 0061
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .au

GMT Canberra +10; Darwin +9.30; Adelaide +9.30; Perth +8; Tasmania +10; Lord Howe Island +10.30
DST Canberra +11; Darwin not applied; Adelaide +10.30; Perth not applied; Tasmania +11; Lord Howe Island +11
DST duration (start-end) early October-early April

Annual average temperature (°C) Sidney 18.2; Alice Springs 20.9; Darwin 27.7; Perth 17.8; Melbourne 15.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Sidney 22.5/13; Alice Springs 28.5/12; Darwin 28.5/25; Perth 24/13; Melbourne 20.5/9.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Sidney 6.5/8; Alice Springs 9.5/10; Darwin 10/7; Perth 5/10.5; Melbourne 3.5/7.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Sidney 1250; Alice Springs 293; Darwin 1699; Perth 870; Melbourne 600
Days of rainfall (annual average) Sidney 124; Alice Springs 39; Darwin 110; Perth 113; Melbourne 142

Politics and current affairs

The legislative elections on 18 May 2019 were won by the conservative coalition led by Prime Minister S. Morrison.

Geography.
Surrounded by the sea, to the N and E it is lapped by the Pacific Ocean (Arafura Sea, Coral Sea and Tasman Sea) and to the S and W by the Indian Ocean.
The coasts are low-lying and lacking in ports for the most part; the Great Barrier Reef stretches for over 2000 km opposite the north-eastern shoreline. The region can be divided into three separate areas. The Great Dividing Range consists of a series of fold mountain chains, which form a line along the eastern edge of the country, then continuing into Tasmania and culminating in the Australian Alps (Mount Kosciuszko, 2229 m).
In the middle a lowlands area opens out, corresponding for the most part to the basins of the Murray-Darling and Lake Eyre. To the W a series of tablelands stretch out at 400-500 m as well as vast desert zones. The territory is lacking in water and the rivers are mostly torrential.
The climate is principally desert or semi-desert. Precipitation is only abundant in the marginal areas. The summers are characterised by widespread drought practically everywhere.

Government


An independent federal state within the British Commonwealth (since 1901), Australia comprises of 6 states (each with an elective parliament and governor) and 3 territories (North, Capital and Jervis Bay). Some outer territories are not part of the Australian federation, but are administered by it (or by individual federated states). After 1941 the Labor Party and the Liberal Party have taken turns at running the government; the Liberal Party also won the 2013 elections. From 2001 to 2007 the country took part in military operations in Iraq alongside the USA. Australia has led some international policing missions in the Pacific area (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea) and in particular in East Timor, following the country’s independence.
Based on the 1901 Constitution, the Head of State is the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, represented by a governor-general. The Federal Executive Council is responsible before Parliament, which consists of two houses: the Senate (76 members, 12 for each state, elected by direct suffrage for 6 years, which may be renewed, by half, every 3, and 2 for each territory, elected for 3 years) and the House of Representatives (151 members, no fewer than 5 for each state, elected by direct suffrage for 3 years); voting is mandatory. The proposal to become a republic, with a president elected by Parliament, was rejected by a referendum (on 6 November, 1999).


Defence.
Military service is voluntary.


Justice.
The legal system is based on British Common Law. In addition to the High Court and federal tribunals, each single state has its own supreme court and minor tribunals.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force25%2015
Army51.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 134.2per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides0.8per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brisbane1 231 605inhab.2018
Gold Coast (QLD)606 774inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Sydney5 132 355inhab.2017
Greater Melbourne4 843 781inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

There is a very high urban population percentage. Population growth started to rise again after 2001, at a higher rate than in other industrialized countries. An immigration control policy is upheld (especially immigrants coming from South East Asia), made even harsher in 2013 and in 2017 by the right-wing government. Almost 30% of the population was born abroad. The Aborigines are still marginalized and their life expectancy is about 10 years lower than the population of European origin.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.52018
Death rate6.42018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total3 245 913units2011
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white88.8%2016
Asian8.4%2016


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist30.1%2016
Catholic22.6%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years17.7%2018
15-29 years19.8%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy is dependent on exports of raw materials, which have guaranteed over two decades of growth, but are now feeling the effect of the drop in prices and the reduced demand by East Asia, particularly China.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)104.35index2016
Balance of trade21 188.2M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 282 040units2018
Active population, Females46.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses660 055M LCU2018
Revenues678 431M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.6%2018
industry19.9%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.7%2017
industry24.7%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation81.14BN LCU2018
International reserves53 880.5M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Agriculture is highly productive and diversified, but is heavily affected by climatic variations and, in particular, by recurring periods of drought. Australia is one of the world’s leading exporters of agricultural products. Cereal production is abundant, especially wheat and barley.
In terms of industrial crops sugar cane and cotton should be pointed out (especially in Queensland and New South Wales) as well as flax (in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria). Fruit (and citrus fruit) growing is widespread: vines thrive in the states of Victoria and South Australia and tobacco is cultivated in Queensland, Victoria and New South Wales. Eucalyptus, acacia and casuarina are the predominant essences.
Livestock and fishing.
Animal farming, concentrated in the eastern and southwestern areas of the country, is a key resource for the Australian economy. In particular, the country’s sheep farming puts it among the world’s leading wool producers. The fishing industry focuses on superior species (crustaceans, tuna and molluscs); aquaculture produces mainly salmon and molluscs.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.05%2015
forests16.24%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley13 505.991000 t2017
cereals, total50 048.8041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 105.1941000 t2017
roots and tubers, total1 177.6171000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus6.7291000 t2017
cabbages99.1021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry35.8981000 t2017
beans, green41.3731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 824.4311000 t2017
raisins301000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives122.571000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts16.5291000 t2017
rapeseed4 313.231000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0051000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.511000 t2017
sugar cane36 561.4971000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2 150.9611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed61000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples313.731000 t2017
apricots5.3511000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds75.3731000 t2017
pistachios1.4081000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits508.4791000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes1.8091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados56.5011000 t2017
bananas412.9721000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms46.3261000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley4 834.1021000 ha2017
maize67.7711000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes28.3721000 ha2017
sweet potatoes2.0281000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.8011000 ha2017
carrots and turnips5.7851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry39.1571000 ha2017
beans, green7.6611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape136.9321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive52.2041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts5.4951000 ha2017
rapeseed2 681.1621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0111000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.2181000 ha2017
sugar cane453.471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton518.5891000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples19.441000 ha2017
apricots5.131000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds381000 ha2017
pistachios1.3821000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.4311000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.1661000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados11.841000 ha2017
bananas14.0211000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.1391000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber37 274 9092017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle26 175.5211000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes26 175.5211000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 485.6991000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep72 125.3341000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 6001000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1.9141000 heads2017
asses and mules1.9141000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds97 5031000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey13.1981000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter125.1241000 t2014
cheese311.461000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals6.212t2017
crustaceans and molluscs79 178.09t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The subsoil is abundant in minerals. The main oil extraction isn’t enough to meet the national needs. The main deposits are located in Moonie, Alton and Conloi (QLD), on Barrow Island and in the Bass Strait.
Natural gas, which is partly liquefied for export, is supplied by the fields in the Bass Strait, the continental shelf of Queensland and southern Australia, and off Barrow Island; since 2006, an agreement has also been in place with East Timor for the joint exploitation of the offshore fields in the Timor Sea.
The most important coal deposits are located in New South Wales (Newcastle, Lithgow, Cessnock and Burragorang), Queensland (Ipswich, Callide and Collinsville) and in Western Australia (Collie); the Morwell lignite mines are important, too.
Australia is home to over a quarter of the world’s uranium reserves (deposits in Ranger, Kintyre, Olympic Dam, Moline, Mary Kathleen, South Alligator River and Rum Jungle). Iron ore bodies are found in Pilbara, Mount Tom Price, Mount Goldsworthy, Koolanooka, Mount Newman and Koolyanobbing (WA), Savage River (TAS) and Iron Knob (SA).
The country is the world’s leading producer of lithium (WA). Manganese deposits are worked in Pilbara, Peak Hill and Groote Eylandt. Large copper mines are located in Mount Isa and Mount Morgan (QLD), Mount Lyell (TAS) and Tennant Creek (NT); tin mines in Mount Bischoff (TAS) and Herberton (QLD). Lead is extracted in Broken Hill, Zeehan, Mount Isa and Read-Rosebery (and elsewhere associated with silver); zinc in Broken Hill; asbestos in Wittenoom Gorge; tungsten in Tasmania; and nickel in Kambalda and Scotia. Bauxite comes from Gippsland, Gove (NT), Weipa (QLD) and the Darling Range area (WA). Of great strategic importance at international level is the extraction of rare earths, of which the country is one of the world’s largest producers.
Diamonds are extracted in Argyle (WA) and Bow River; gold in Broken Hill, Kalgoorlie and Tennant Creek; silver in Broken Hill, Silverton, Chillagoe, Herberton, Zeehan, Mount Lyell and Mount Farrel; opals in Lightning Ridge, Coober Pedy and Andamooka (SA).
Energy and industry.
Electricity is obtained in large part from thermal power plants fed mainly by coal. Hydroelectric production is concentrated in New South Wales (hydropower plant in the Snowy Mountains) and Tasmania.
The iron and steel industry has facilities in Whyalla, Newcastle, Port Kembla, Unanderra and Western Port. Copper production is concentrated in Port Kembla, Queenstown (TAS), Townsville and Mount Morgan; lead in Port Pirie, Mount Isa, Melbourne and Cockle Creek; zinc in Cockle Creek, Port Pirie and Risdon; aluminium in Bell Bay (TAS), Kwinana (WA), Port Henry (VIC) and Kurri Kurri (NSW).
The leading chemical industries are situated in Sydney, Melbourne, Ballarat, Salisbury, Saint Mary, Villawood, Rhodes, Matraville, Geelong, Brisbane, Adelaide, Kwinana, Newcastle, Penrith and Port Kembla.
Man-made and synthetic textile fibres are produced in Tomago, Penrith, Bayswater and Waterloo.
In terms of the mechanical industries the aeronautic industry is significant (in Melbourne and Sydney) as well as the car (in Dandenong and Rushcutters Bay, Sydney) and shipbuilding industries.
Other important processing industries include textiles, food conservation, sugar and paper.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal437 765.11000 t2017
coal, total485 491.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony3.11000 t2018
bauxite75 0001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite7.11000 t2016
bentonite711000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2601000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds3401000 ct2018
diamonds, industrial - ct17 0001000 ct2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal205 968.1M kWh2016
- other renew.22 131M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal46 9601000 kW2016
- other renew.9 875.11000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation243 002.1M kWh2016
total installed capacity65 559.11000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina19 0001000 t2018
aluminium1 6001000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars88 195no.2017
commercial vehicles10 437no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1721000 t2016
petrol16 107.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 3001000 t2018
nitrogen fertilizers423.41000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets44 1861000 m²2008
cotton fabrics8M m²2006
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear5 596 000pairs2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 6911000 t2014
coconut oil0.91000 t2011
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes and tobacco18 785t2004
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp9951000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp1 3781000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 0001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production6 994.3M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production19 178.2M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Australia is among the largest exporters of minerals and agricultural produce. Its main imports are vehicles, machinery, computer and telecommunications equipment, and oil products. Its main trading partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the USA.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
iron ores 49 282, coal and its products 40 575, natural gas 20 493, 
gold 13 091, meat 9 119, chemicals 6 774, crude oil and petroleum products 5 872, wheat 4 655, machinery 4 652, copper ores 3 647, aluminium 3 149, refined copper 2 555, pharmaceuticals 2 530, oil seeds 1 907, vehicles and parts thereof 1 804, electrical and electronic equipment 3 117, optical and electro-medical appliances 3 084, 
wool and its products 2 872, legumes 2 248, wine 2 052, iron and steel 1 819, milk and dairy products 1 807, jewels and precious stones 1 753, timber 1 657, barley 1 618, cotton 1 605, food preparations 1 560, aircraft and parts thereof 1 526, fruit 1 466, zinc ores 1 347, 
unwrought zinc 1 286, live animals 1 238, precious metals 1 224, fish and crustaceans 1 068, unwrought lead 941, plastics 904, paper and paperboard 802


Finance and banking.
The Reserve Bank of Australia is the central bank. Financial services are highly developed.
The Australian Security Exchange, based in Sydney, is one of the main stock exchanges in the Pacific area.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals28.334% of goods exports2018
fuels24.448% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China87 726M US$2018
Japan41 356M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China57 699M US$2018
United States24 665M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018256 880M US$ -
2017231 072M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018235 691M US$ -
2017228 772M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism.
Thanks to low air fares and the efficiency of the local tourism board, international tourism plays a significant role. The main tourism comes from New Zealand, China, Japan, the European Union and the USA.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures39 491M US$2017
Number of arrivals8 815 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The road and rail networks are efficient and extensive, especially along the East Coast. Air travel is highly developed, with more than 400 airports.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown547 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried74 257.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers324.041per 1000 pop.2017
Computers766per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
The governments of the individual states are responsible for primary and secondary educational and technical training. The federal government finances most of the university education and organises special courses to help Aborigine and immigrant students. School attendance is, as a rule, mandatory from 5 to 15 years of age (with small variation depending on the state), apart from young people living in very isolated areas (for whom distance learning systems have been implemented over the Internet and by satellite).
The quality of the country’s universities attracts a growing number of overseas students, especially from East Asia, which is having a positive effect on the balance of payments, too.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling22.1years2017
Gradautes, percentage45.4%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level104 603units1998
Teachers, secondary level104 477units1998
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending27.2% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending17.8% of GDP2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.8per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians3.6per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.06%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums1 456units2008
Museums, visitors30 717 500units2008
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.93% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.1%2015-16
education3.1%2015-16
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