Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 2 780 400 sq km
Population: 45 808 747 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 16.48 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 22° - 55° S; long. 74° - 54° W
Capital: Buenos Aires (capital) 3 068 043 inhab. (2018); Gran Buenos Aires 15 397 000 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: argentine peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.845 (rank: 46)
President and head of government: Alberto Fernández (Justicialist Party), elected 27 October 2019, in office since 10 December 2019
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 22 October 2017 and 27 October 2019: Everyone's Front (coalition led by the Justicialist Party), 119; Together for Change (coalition led by Republican Proposal), 116; others, 22
Internet: www.indec.gob.ar (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, PROSUR, UN, WTO

Argentina

Argentina, República Argentina
Useful information

International license plate code RA
International dialling code 0054
Travel vaccinations requirement none; yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (very low risk confined to some rural areas for which it is recommended or advised)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ar

GMT  -3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Buenos Aires 16.3; Salta 17.7; Ushuaia 5.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Buenos Aires 23/10; Salta 21.5/12.5; Ushuaia 9.5/0
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Buenos Aires 4/9; Salta 5/6; Ushuaia 1/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Buenos Aires 1205; Salta 670; Ushuaia 575
Days of rainfall (annual average) Buenos Aires 86; Salta 79; Ushuaia 140

Politics and current affairs

The health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic worsened the already precarious economic situation, resulting in serious social consequences. To find the necessary resources to face up to the situation, the government taxed the wealthy with a solidarity law (effective 18 December 2020), while also renegotiating the debt with international creditors.

Geography.
Argentina is bordered to the north by Bolivia and Paraguay, to the northeast by Brazil and Uruguay, and to the west by Chile. To the east its Atlantic coastline extends over 4989 km. The most striking geographical contrast is between the plains to the east and, to the west, the Andes mountain range, which marks the border with Chile.
The highest mountain in Argentina (and the Americas) is Aconcagua (6962 m). To the east of the Andes, from north to south, lie the Gran Chaco, a vast low-lying plain of grass and scattered shrubs; the huge Pampas plain; the Mesopotamia Argentina, a low-lying swampy region between the River Paraná and the River Uruguay; and the steppe-like, sparsely-populated Patagonia region and Tierra del Fuego, south of the Río Colorado. The largest river is the Paraná, whose main tributary is the River Paraguay. Other rivers include the Pilcomayo, the Uruguay, the Río Negro and the Chubut.
The climate ranges from subtropical in the Gran Chaco through arid steppe in the Pampas to sub-polar in Patagonia.
Argentina has laid geographical claim to the Islas del Atlántico Sur, which include the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas, 12 173 km²), South Georgia (Georgias del Sur, 3560 km²), the South Orkney Islands (Orcadas del Sur, 750 km²) and the South Sandwich Islands (Sandwich del Sur, 307 km²), all of which are owned by the United Kingdom and claimed by Argentina.

Government


Argentina, a presidential federal republic, gained its independence from Spain on 9 July 1816. It has 23 Provinces, each with its own Governor and Elective Assembly, and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The federal capital is Buenos Aires; the province of Buenos Aires has 24 districts. Ruled by the military-reformist regime of Juan Domingo Perón from 1946 to 1955, Argentina was subsequently governed by unstable coalitions or military juntas. Perón returned to power in 1973 and, after his death (1974), the post of president was occupied by his wife, María Estela Martínez de Perón, known as “Isabelita”. A military coup in 1976 ushered in a harsh dictatorship that ended in 1983 when Argentina lost the war with the United Kingdom over possession of the Falkland Islands (2 April-14 June 1982). President Raul Alfonsín (1983-89) was succeeded by Carlos Menem (two terms, 1989-99), whose governments pursued a liberalist economic policy based on peso-US dollar parity. The ongoing financial crisis also created serious problems for his successor, the radical Fernando de la Rúa (elected 1999), who was forced to resign on 20 December 2001 in response to widespread popular protest over the catastrophic economic situation. Elected in 2003, the Peronist Néstor Kirchner was succeeded by his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in 2007, who remained in office until 2015 and returned to the government as vice president in 2019, after the parenthesis of the conservative Mauricio Macri. The Constitution which came into force on 24 August 1994 reduced the Presidential mandate from six to four years. The President is also the head of government, directly elected for a maximum of two terms. The Argentinian Congress comprises the Chamber of Deputies (257 members directly elected with a mandate of four years, with half of the members re-elected every two years) and the Senate (72 members elected with a mandate of six years, with a third of the members re-elected every two years). The right to vote is acquired at the age of 16.


Defence and justice.
Military service is voluntary. The legal system is essentially European in inspiration with some US features. The highest federal court is the Supreme Court; every province has its own judicial courts that deal with non-political crimes. In 2010 same-sex marriages became legal. In 2020, a law passed that allows abortion within the first 14 weeks of pregnancy.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force17$%2015
Army57.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 298.4per 100 000 pop.2008
Homicides5.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buenos Aires3 068 043inhab.2018
La Matanza1 775 272inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gran Buenos Aires15 397 000inhab.2020
Córdoba1 563 000inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The urban population rate is among the highest in the world. About a third of the population is of Italian origin and a quarter of Spanish origin. Attempts to exterminate the indigenous Amerindians continued into the early 20th century. Some nomadic tribes survive in the Chaco province, together with the Guaraní in the Misiones province.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate16.8332019
Death rate7.6042019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
European86.4%2000
mestizo6.5%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic71$%2014
Protestant15$%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Guaicurú
Quechua
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24$%2020
15-29 years22.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated the country’s ongoing financial crisis, which was worsened by the 2018 financial turmoil, resulting in recession and high inflation. To cover the public debt, weighed down by subsidies to businesses and citizens during the pandemic, the central bank prints banknotes, worsening the depreciation of the peso, while the dollar reserves are on the brink of running out. Inflation remains high, despite the reduction due to a halt on activities. To obtain part of the necessary resources, on 18 December 2020 solidarity tax on the wealthy came into force.
The debts have been renegotiated with private creditors (the country became insolvent in May 2020) and with the IMF (the country owes 44 billion dollars).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)130.85index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)112.57index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population19 180 360units2020
Active population, Females43$%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 001 428.7M LCU2020
Revenues6 008 138.5M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.1%2019
industry21.4%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.577%2019
industry27.551%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3 396BN LCU2020
International reserves39 403.735M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Government support for agriculture has extended and diversified the range of crops, leading to an increase in fruit and oil crop production, especially soybeans (provinces of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Santa Fe). Cereal farming is mainly maize and wheat (Córdoba and Buenos Aires), followed by barley (Buenos Aires). Sunflowers are grown in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Chaco and Santa Fe; cotton in Santiago del Estero and Chaco; tobacco and tea in Corrientes, Misiones, Salta and Jujuy; sugar cane in Tucumán; and vines and fruit (apples, peaches, pears) in Mendoza, San Juan, Río Negro and La Rioja.
Livestock.
Livestock farming, one of the major national industries, is practised on the Pampas (cattle and horses) and in Patagonia (sheep and goats). Argentina is one of the largest producers in the world of meat, milk, butter, cheese and wool.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land14.714%2018
forests10.52%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley5 117.2471000 t2019
cereals, total84 948.7771000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava195.8521000 t2019
potatoes2 209.221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes111.8531000 t2019
asparagus11.7511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry578.7131000 t2019
beans, green3.1331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes2 519.8861000 t2019
raisins16.91000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives325.8621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1 337.2291000 t2019
rapeseed39.6891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts5.7351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea85.731000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.4931000 t2019
sugar cane17 652.8141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton872.7211000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow2.6951000 t2019
linseed9.951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples538.7221000 t2019
apricots27.1531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.8121000 t2019
walnuts18.4881000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3 469.2771000 t2019
grapefruits112.631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados4.1371000 t2019
bananas176.5551000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 256.361000 ha2019
maize7 232.7611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava19.5521000 ha2019
potatoes68.4571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes3.91000 ha2019
carrots and turnips9.0391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry419.9271000 ha2019
beans, green5.2051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape215.1691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive119.2731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0$1000 ha2016
groundnuts387.0141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts2.1981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea39.7941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.4021000 ha2019
sugar cane476.1761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton332.8961000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow2.8961000 ha2019
linseed9.0461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples22.3351000 ha2019
apricots2.3691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.4341000 ha2019
walnuts15.2191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits137.3611000 ha2019
grapefruits4.6371000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.5831000 ha2019
bananas8.4191000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber17 884 1092019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle54 460.7991000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes54 460.7991000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs5 128.9541000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep14 774.1961000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 638.6351000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses61.5411000 heads2019
asses and mules108.1341000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds126 7221000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey78.9271000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter34.6611000 t2020
cheese420.651000 t2020
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs336 953.5t2019
freshwater fishes26 846.35t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Argentina is virtually self-sufficient in energy. The most important product is oil, about a third of which comes from the oil fields in Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut province), and the rest from wells in the provinces of Santa Cruz (Cerro Redondo), Neuquén (Plaza Huincul), Río Negro, Salta (Campo Durán), Mendoza (Tupungato, Mendoza, Barrancas) and in Tierra del Fuego. The major pipelines are the Campo Durán to San Lorenzo (1489 km) and the Puerto Rosales to La Plata. Natural gas production is strong, distributed via a network of pipelines that cross the country and link up with the networks of Bolivia, Chile and Uruguay.
Lithium production and reserves are among the largest in the world. There are also coal (Río Turbio), boron, copper, silver, gold, bentonite and feldspar mines.
Energy.
Most of the electricity is produced by gas-fired thermal plants. The hydroelectric potential is noteworthy (main power plants on Limay, Paraná, Santa Cruz and Uruguay rivers). Three nuclear reactors are also active, with a fourth being under construction.
Industry.
Industry, mainly oriented towards the internal market, contributes about a quarter to the GDP and is among the most diversified in Latin America. Some twenty oil refineries are located along the Río de la Plata (La Plata, Campana, Avellaneda, Dock Sud, San Lorenzo), at Bahía Blanca and in drilling areas (Comodoro Rivadavia, Luján de Cuyo, Campo Durán, Plaza Huincul).
There are major chemical plants in Córdoba and Rosario, as well as cement works in the province of Buenos Aires and in the north-west of the country. Also important are iron and steelworks (especially in the provinces of Santa Fe and Buenos Aires), lead (Barranqueras, Mercedes, San Justo), zinc (Comodoro Rivadavia, Zárate, Rosario) and aluminium (Puerto Madryn) plants. The main centres of mechanical engineering are Córdoba (aircraft, tractors, cars), Tafí Viejo, San Cristóbal, Cruz del Eje, Remedios and Junín (railways), Escobar (oil industry), Buenos Aires (office machines), and Tigre and San Fernando (shipyards). The automobile industry is mostly located in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Sante Fé.
The food industry is very developed (wine making, edible oils, preserves and pasta production), and operates mostly in national products.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal93.41000 t2020
coal, total93.41000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cadmium74$t2018
copper17.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite7$1000 t2019
bentonite52$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite70$1000 t2020
kaolin5$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold60 000kg2020
precious stones - kg27 534kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal89 899.72M kWh2019
- hydro27 334.89M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal24 5311000 kW2018
- hydro10 3361000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation132 346.61M kWh2019
total installed capacity38 643.61000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium4381000 t2019
aluminium, primary4381000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars93 001no.2020
commercial vehicles164 186no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras23 964no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners891 776no.2020
fridges731 789no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3281000 t2019
petrol7 643.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia729.81000 t2020
artificial yarn0.9251000 t2010
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton yarn1.31000 t2004
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear906 000pairs2004
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 9141000 t2018
cottonseed oil20.11000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes, packs1 686M units2020
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp5021000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp6601000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 8711000 t2020
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production8 751.123M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production20 354.068M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Argentina is a major exporter of farm produce and foodstuffs.
It imports mainly machinery, motor vehicles and chemicals.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
residues and waste of food industry 9 822, vehicles and parts thereof 4 230, maize 3 883, soya beans and soybean oil 6 458, chemicals 2 755, wheat 2 362, gold 2 260, fish and crustaceans 1 950, meat 1 836, fruit and vegetables 1 651, cars 1 542, crude oil and petroleum products 1 215, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 1 149, vegetable oils 1 127, machinery 1 109, plastics 995, wine 806, aluminium 793, iron and steel 768, pharmaceuticals 744, 
cereals 721, leather 720, cosmetics 635, milk and dairy products 580, malt extract and flours 499, aircraft and parts thereof 489, oil seeds 417


Finance & banking.
The banking system is governed by the Banco Central. The main stock exchange is in Buenos Aires.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products58.767% of goods exports2019
manufactures16.555% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil7 941M US$2020
China5 244M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 656M US$2020
Brazil8 649M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202054 884M US$ -
201965 116M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202042 354M US$ -
201949 124M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism.
The main destinations are the Andes, the Atlantic beaches, the Iguazú Falls, Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures9 826M US$2019
Number of arrivals7 399 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The road and rail networks radiate from Buenos Aires; a road tunnel is planned under the Agua Negra Pass, on the border with Chile. The railways were privatized in the Nineties, but were later partly renationalized. The national airline Aerolíneas Argentinas, taken over by Iberia in 1991, returned to state control in 2008.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown42 600 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried19 461.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers196.361per 1000 pop.2019
Computers90.4per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Education is free at all levels. Primary education (seven years) is compulsory; secondary education lasts from five to seven years depending on the type of certificate. There are a hundred universities, of which about half are private.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling17.656years2018
Gradautes, percentage35.664%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 776 452units2018
Students, secondary level4 582 184units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending47.138% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.99per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians3.99per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2019
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.494% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99.8%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing8.2%2004-05
education3.1%2004-05
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