Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 2 780 400 sq km
Population: 44 494 502 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 16.00 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 22° - 55° S; long. 74° - 54° W
Capital: Buenos Aires (capital) 3 068 043 inhab. (2018); Gran Buenos Aires 14 988 000 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: argentine peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.825 (rank: 47)
President and head of government: Mauricio Macri (PRO), elected 22 November 2015, in office since10 December 2015
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 25 October 2015 and 22 October 2017: Cambiemos (coalition led by Republican Proposal), 108; FpV (Front for Victory, coalition led by the Justicialist Party), 65; Argentina Federal, 34; FR (Renewal Front, Peronist), 20; others, 30
Internet: www.indec.gob.ar (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos)
Member of Mercosur, OAS, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Argentina

Argentina, República Argentina
Useful information

International license plate code RA
International dialling code 0054
Travel vaccinations requirement none; yellow fever (recommended for some areas); malaria prophylaxis (very low risk confined to some rural areas for which it is recommended or advised)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ar

GMT  -3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Buenos Aires 16.3; Salta 17.7; Ushuaia 5.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Buenos Aires 23/10; Salta 21.5/12.5; Ushuaia 9.5/0
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Buenos Aires 4/9; Salta 5/6; Ushuaia 1/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Buenos Aires 1205; Salta 670; Ushuaia 575
Days of rainfall (annual average) Buenos Aires 86; Salta 79; Ushuaia 140

Politics and current affairs

Ahead of the general election in October-November 2019, electoral campaigns are being carried out against the backdrop of a difficult economic situation, which includes a recession, inflation, a decrease in purchasing power and an increase in poverty. President M. Macri is running against Alberto Fernández, the former Chief of the Cabinet under President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who is currently be charged for corruption and who will run as Fernández’s Vice President.

Geography.
Argentina is bordered to the north by Bolivia and Paraguay, to the northeast by Brazil and Uruguay, and to the west by Chile. To the east its Atlantic coastline extends over 4989 km. The most striking geographical contrast is between the plains to the east and, to the west, the Andes mountain range, which marks the border with Chile.
The highest mountain in Argentina (and the Americas) is Aconcagua (6962 m). To the east of the Andes, from north to south, lie the Gran Chaco, a vast low-lying plain of grass and scattered shrubs; the huge Pampas plain; the Mesopotamia Argentina, a low-lying swampy region between the River Paraná and the River Uruguay; and the steppe-like, sparsely-populated Patagonia region and Tierra del Fuego, south of the Río Colorado. The largest river is the Paraná, whose main tributary is the River Paraguay. Other rivers include the Pilcomayo, the Uruguay, the Río Negro and the Chubut.
The climate ranges from subtropical in the Gran Chaco through arid steppe in the Pampas to sub-polar in Patagonia.
Argentina has laid geographical claim to the Islas del Atlántico Sur, which include the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas, 12 173 km²), South Georgia (Georgias del Sur, 3560 km²), the South Orkney Islands (Orcadas del Sur, 750 km²) and the South Sandwich Islands (Sandwich del Sur, 307 km²), all of which are owned by the United Kingdom and claimed by Argentina.

Government


Argentina, a presidential federal republic, gained its independence from Spain on 9 July 1816. It has 23 Provinces, each with its own Governor and Elective Assembly, and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The federal capital is Buenos Aires; the province of Buenos Aires has 24 districts. Ruled by the military-reformist regime of Juan Domingo Perón from 1946 to 1955, Argentina was subsequently governed by unstable coalitions or military juntas. Perón returned to power in 1973 and, after his death (1974), the post of president was occupied by his wife, María Estela Martínez de Perón, known as “Isabelita”. A military coup in 1976 ushered in a harsh dictatorship that ended in 1983 when Argentina lost the war with the United Kingdom over possession of the Falkland Islands (2 April-14 June 1982). President Raul Alfonsín (1983-89) was succeeded by Carlos Menem (two terms, 1989-99), whose governments pursued a liberalist economic policy based on peso-US dollar parity. The ongoing financial crisis also created serious problems for his successor, the radical Fernando de la Rúa (elected 1999), who was forced to resign on 20 December 2001 in response to widespread popular protest over the catastrophic economic situation. Elected in 2003, the Peronist Néstor Kirchner was succeeded by his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in 2007, who remained in office until 2015.
The Constitution which came into force on 24 August 1994 reduced the Presidential mandate from six to four years. The President is also the head of government, directly elected for a maximum of two terms. The Argentinian Congress comprises the Chamber of Deputies (257 members directly elected with a mandate of four years, with half of the members re-elected every two years) and the Senate (72 members elected with a mandate of six years, with a third of the members re-elected every two years).


Defence and justice.
Military service is voluntary. The legal system is essentially European in inspiration with some US features. The highest federal court is the Supreme Court; every province has its own judicial courts that deal with non-political crimes. In 2010 same-sex marriages became legal.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force17%2015
Army57.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 298.4per 100 000 pop.2008
Homicides5.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Buenos Aires3 068 043inhab.2018
La Matanza1 775 272inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gran Buenos Aires14 988 000inhab.2018
Córdoba1 540 000inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The urban population rate is among the highest in the world. About a third of the population is of Italian origin and a quarter of Spanish origin. Attempts to exterminate the indigenous Amerindians continued into the early 20th century. Some nomadic tribes survive in the Chaco province, together with the Guaraní in the Misiones province.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate172017
Death rate7.62017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
European86.4%2000
mestizo6.5%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic71%2014
Protestant15%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Guaicurú
Quechua
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24.4%2018
15-29 years22.7%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
To counteract low economic growth, high inflation and lower purchasing power, Mauricio Macri’s government adopted measures aimed at liberalizing the economy, going against the statist policy of previous administrations: controls were removed on the movement of capital, protectionist measures were reduced that affected exports, the exchange rate was liberalized, subsidies were reorganized, accords with international creditors were established and social security spending was slashed.
In 2018-19, the deficit decreased, but the country entered a recession; furthermore, the international increase in the cost of money led to a reduction in foreign investments, a rapid devaluation of the peso and the central bank to raise interest rates many times; the continuation of high inflation is eroding purchasing power, causing poverty and social tensions. To shore up the economy and stem speculation, in 2018 the country obtained significant loans from the IMF.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)130.85index2016
Balance of trade-3 823M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population20 360 197units2018
Active population, Females41.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9.5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses3 328 486.9M LCU2018
Revenues2 600 559.6M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.1%2018
industry22.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.7%2017
industry25.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 243.3BN LCU2017
International reserves66 221.5M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Government support for agriculture has extended and diversified the range of crops, leading to an increase in fruit and oil (soya) production (provinces of Córdoba, Buenos Aires and Santa Fe). Cereal farming is mainly maize (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe and Córdoba), followed by wheat (Buenos Aires) and barley. Flax and sunflowers are grown in the Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Córdoba provinces; cotton in the Chaco province; tobacco and tea in the Corrientes, Misiones, Salta and Jujuy provinces; sugar cane in the Tucumán province; and vines and fruit (apples, peaches, pears) in the Mendoza, San Juan, Río Negro and La Rioja provinces.
Livestock.
Livestock farming, one of the major national industries, is practised on the Pampas (cattle and horses) and in Patagonia (sheep and goats).
Argentina is one of the largest producers in the world of meat, milk, butter, cheese and wool.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land14.69%2015
forests9.91%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 741.1581000 t2017
cereals, total76 397.2231000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava193.0481000 t2017
potatoes2 454.0011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes108.6831000 t2017
asparagus10.4571000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry413.6051000 t2017
beans, green4.0421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 965.2061000 t2017
raisins16.91000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives176.4041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1 031.0821000 t2017
rapeseed49.841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts5.6141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea80.6081000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.4721000 t2017
sugar cane19 164.7181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton616.161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow2.6091000 t2017
linseed13.5751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples994.711000 t2017
apricots27.0271000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.7141000 t2017
walnuts12.051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3 2721000 t2017
grapefruits1121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.961000 t2017
bananas175.8571000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley870.2131000 ha2017
maize6 530.6731000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava19.2761000 ha2017
potatoes75.9751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes4.4721000 ha2017
carrots and turnips9.8241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry415.341000 ha2017
beans, green1.0351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape220.8481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive63.3471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed01000 ha2016
groundnuts334.051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tung
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tung nuts2.2271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea39.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.3851000 ha2017
sugar cane378.8181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton253.311000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow2.9151000 ha2017
linseed12.41000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples32.3251000 ha2017
apricots2.3481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3731000 ha2017
walnuts4.9041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits134.9541000 ha2017
grapefruits4.851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.5881000 ha2017
bananas8.3531000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber16 979 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle53 353.7871000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes53 353.7871000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs5 4001000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep14 842.9571000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 720.5241000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses99.5541000 heads2017
asses and mules285.0551000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds122 0151000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey67.51000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter51.5591000 t2014
cheese558.9071000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs384 308.24t2017
freshwater fishes24 226.07t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Argentina is virtually self-sufficient in energy. The most important product is oil, about a third of which comes from the oil fields in Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut province), and the rest from wells in the provinces of Santa Cruz (Cerro Redondo), Neuquén (Plaza Huincul), Río Negro, Salta (Campo Durán), Mendoza (Tupungato, Mendoza, Barrancas) and in Tierra del Fuego. The major pipelines are the Campo Durán to San Lorenzo (1489 km) and the Puerto Rosales to La Plata. Natural gas production is strong, distributed via a network of pipelines that cross the country and link up with the networks of Bolivia, Chile and Uruguay.
Lithium production and reserves are among the largest in the world. There are also coal (Río Turbio), boron, copper, silver, gold, bentonite and feldspar mines.
Industry.
Industry contributes about a quarter to GDP and is among the most diversified in Latin America. Some twenty oil refineries are located along the Río de la Plata (La Plata, Campana, Avellaneda, Dock Sud, San Lorenzo), at Bahía Blanca and in drilling areas (Comodoro Rivadavia, Luján de Cuyo, Campo Durán, Plaza Huincul).
There are major chemical plants in Córdoba and Rosario, as well as cement works in the province of Buenos Aires and in the north-west of the country. Also important are iron and steelworks (especially in the provinces of Santa Fe and Buenos Aires), lead (Barranqueras, Mercedes, San Justo), zinc (Comodoro Rivadavia, Zárate, Rosario) and aluminium (Puerto Madryn) plants. The main centres of mechanical engineering are Córdoba (aircraft, tractors, cars), Tafí Viejo, San Cristóbal, Cruz del Eje, Remedios and Junín (railways), Escobar (oil industry), Buenos Aires (office machines), and Tigre and San Fernando (shipyards). The automobile industry is mostly located in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Sante Fé.
The food industry is very developed (wine making, edible oils, preserves and pasta production), and operates mostly in national products.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal26.61000 t2016
coal, total26.61000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cadmium107t2015
copper61.81000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite201000 t2016
bentonite2401000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite601000 t2018
kaolin611000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold56 000kg2016
precious stones - kg70 300kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal92 930.28M kWh2016
- hydro29 354M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal25 7631000 kW2016
- hydro9 0971000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation131 910.28M kWh2016
total installed capacity38 3521000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium4281000 t2018
aluminium, primary4281000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars208 573no.2018
commercial vehicles258 076no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras23 964no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 177 977no.2018
fridges812 649no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4421000 t2016
petrol7 643.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia8571000 t2018
artificial yarn0.9251000 t2010
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton yarn1.31000 t2004
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear906 000pairs2004
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 6501000 t2014
cottonseed oil26.71000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes, packs1 740M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp7241000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp7671000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement11 8411000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food, beverages and tobacco production12 108M US$2001
machinery and transport equipment production5 189M US$2001
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Argentina is a major exporter of farm produce and foodstuffs.
It imports mainly machinery, motor vehicles and chemicals.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
residues and waste of food industry 9 822, vehicles and parts thereof 4 230, maize 3 883, soya beans and soybean oil 6 458, chemicals 2 755, wheat 2 362, gold 2 260, fish and crustaceans 1 950, meat 1 836, fruit and vegetables 1 651, cars 1 542, crude oil and petroleum products 1 215, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 1 149, vegetable oils 1 127, machinery 1 109, plastics 995, wine 806, aluminium 793, iron and steel 768, pharmaceuticals 744, cereals 721, leather 720, cosmetics 635, milk and dairy products 580, malt extract and flours 499, aircraft and parts thereof 489, oil seeds 417


Finance and banking.
The banking system is governed by the Banco Central. The main stock exchange is in Buenos Aires. Argentina is a founding member of Mercosur and helped to set up the Banco del Sur (2007), which finances economic and social development projects throughout Latin America.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products56.475% of goods exports2018
manufactures20.454% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil11 291M US$2018
United States4 278M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Brazil15 573M US$2018
China12 072M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201861 620M US$ -
201758 622M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201865 443M US$ -
201766 930M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism.
The main destinations are the Andes, the Atlantic beaches, the Iguazú Falls, Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures13 516M US$2017
Number of arrivals6 720 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The road and rail networks radiate from Buenos Aires; a road tunnel is planned under the Agua Negra Pass, on the border with Chile. The railways were privatized in the Nineties, but were later partly renationalized. The national airline Aerolíneas Argentinas, taken over by Iberia in 1991, returned to state control in 2008.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown42 600 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried18 308.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers177.773per 1000 pop.2017
Computers90.4per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
Education is free at all levels. Primary education (seven years) is compulsory; secondary education lasts from five to seven years depending on the type of certificate. There are a hundred universities, of which about half are private.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling17.6years2016
Gradautes, percentage21.4%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level288 776units2008
Teachers, secondary level323 957units2008
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending40.6% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians3.9per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2017
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.5% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking98.4%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing8.2%2004-05
education3.1%2004-05
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