Form of Government: Presidential republic
Area: 1 246 700 sq km
Population: 32 097 671 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 25.75 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 4° - 18° S; long. 12° - 24° E
Capital: Luanda (capital) 2 571 861 inhab. (2019);
Currency: kwanza (100 cêntimos)
Human development index: 0.581 (rank: 148)
President: João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço (MPLA), in office since 26 September 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 23 August 2017: People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), 150; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), 51; others, 19
Internet: www.ine.gov.ao (Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Angola)
Member of AU, OAS observer, OPEC, SADC, UN, WTO

Angola

Angola, República de Angola
Useful information

International license plate code ANG
International dialling code 00244
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ao

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Luanda 25.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Luanda 27/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Luanda 7/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Luanda 374
Days of rainfall (annual average) Luanda 31

Geography.
Angola is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north and north-east, by Zambia to the south, and by Namibia to the south; the Atlantic Ocean lies off its western coastline which is 1600 km long.
The interior is a vast plateau, the east of which is fringed with mountains (the Serra Môco, 2620 m) which slope steeply down towards the Atlantic Ocean (into which the M’Bridge and Cuanza rivers flow). The central areas are washed by tributaries of the River Congo in the north (by the Cuango and the Cassai rivers) and the River Zambezi in the south-east. The province of Cabinda is an Angolan exclave situated between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of Congo. Since the plateau is quite high, about 1200 m on average, the climate is fairly temperate.

Government


Formerly a Portuguese colony and later an overseas province of Portugal (1951), Angola gained independence on 11 November 1975 in the midst of a bitter civil war between the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA, well-disposed towards the West and linked to the discriminatory regime in South Africa).
The MPLA, led by Agostinho Neto, took charge of the government and UNITA began a long period of guerrilla warfare which appeared to end with the Lisbon peace accords (31 May 1991). However, after the MPLA won the elections in 1992, UNITA took up arms again, largely financed by the illegal trade of diamonds. In 2002, after the death of their leader Jonas Savimbi (on 22 February of that year), the UNITA rebels agreed to the cease-fire put forward by the government, in exchange for an amnesty. Since 2006, an agreement has also been in place with the separatist movement of Cabinda, the Angolan exclave with rich oil reserves. There thus began a period of normalization which resulted in elections in 2008. An armed separatist movement is active in the oil-rich exclave of Cabinda.
According to the 2010 Constitution, the unicameral Parliament consists of 220 elected members with a five-year term; the head of the party that receives the highest number of votes is elected President of the Republic.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.6%2015
Army93.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.6per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Luanda2 571 861inhab.2019
Lubango637 473inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate40.2322019
Death rate7.9812019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black97$%2005
mestizo2$%2005


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic41$%2014
Protestant38$%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
Khoisan
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years47.8%2020
15-29 years25.5%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy, strongly tied to the export of hydrocarbons, had already slowed in growth since 2014, following a drop in market prices. The additional reduction in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a deficit in the balance of payments. A slow recovery began in 2021. In recent years, the government reduced fuel subsidies and intervened in public companies, subsequently privatized in part, to alleviate pressure on public accounts. The central bank adopted a restrictive monetary policy in order to contain the gradual depreciation of the kwanza, which had been tied to the dollar until January 2018. Growth in sectors not tied to hydrocarbons was weak, while the unfavourable economic situation led to a gradual increase in the public debt. Foreign investments, specifically from China and the EU, played a considerable role in building infrastructure within the country.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)191.94index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)110.08index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 292 780units2020
Active population, Females50.3%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females50.7%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 691 000M LCU2020
Revenues7 053 000M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture50.4%2019
industry8.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.544%2019
industry44.522%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation549.107BN LCU2020
International reserves13 781.988M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Only a small percentage of the land is cultivated and a large amount of the food requirement must be imported. The main crops are cassava, bananas and oil palm for export. Important fishing ports are Luanda, Sumbe, Porto Amboim, Benguela and Namibe: the fish caught is partly exported (crustaceans).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.183%2018
forests54.317%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 914.3951000 t2019
maize2 818.6841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava9 000.4321000 t2019
potatoes455.2491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages359.8411000 t2019
tomatoes16.9471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry357.6381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed4.1211000 t2019
groundnuts211.7761000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits280.7471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.4921000 t2019
coffee16.9611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane657.7681000 t2019
tobacco2.9671000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton5.4141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.8321000 t2014
sisal0.5761000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total5 361.8881000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts2.1831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits415.1461000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes415.1461000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas4 036.9591000 t2019
pineapples870.2571000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize2 642.6911000 ha2019
millet238.921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava945.3281000 ha2019
potatoes63.9631000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages128.9911000 ha2019
tomatoes7.7791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry888.3731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed16.1491000 ha2019
groundnuts336.8351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit23.311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa2.9911000 ha2019
coffee55.1881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane16.851000 ha2019
tobacco2.8811000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.9451000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.1721000 ha2014
sisal0.5651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts2.6461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits38.4131000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes38.4131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas162.1561000 ha2019
pineapples73.2691000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber6 121 8862019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 091.7551000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes5 091.7551000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 784.9991000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 189.5331000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 720.0911000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses4.4281000 heads2019
asses and mules4.4281000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds44 3681000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey23.4281000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.6081000 t2018
cheese1.521000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs4 354t2019
freshwater fishes25 425t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The main mining resources are oil (at Cabinda, Benfica, Luanda, Cacuaco, Tobias and Galinda), diamonds (at Dundo and in the provinces of Cuando-Cubango and Malanje) and iron (at Cassinda and Saia). Oil extraction forms approximately 90% of the export value, bound mainly for China. This, with its related activities, is the main source of the country’s GDP. International oil companies from the United States and Europe are involved in joint venture operations and production sharing agreements with Sonangol, the national oil company. Bituminous substances are also extracted (at Libongo and Husso), manganese (at Quicuimbe and Quitota), copper (at Mavoio and Bembe), sea salt (at Lobito), natural gas, diamonds and phosphates. The Ruacaná hydroelectric power station is the main source of electricity in the country. Among the basic industrial segments, oil-refining (at Luanda, Cabinda and a new plant under construction at Lobito), steelworks (at Luanda) and cement works (at Luanda, Benguela and Lobito) stand out. The manufacturing industry is centred on sugar refineries (at Cacuso near Malanje), breweries (at Bengo, Cabinda, Dondo, Huambo, Lobito, Luanda and Lubango), tobacco factories (at Luanda and Lobito), oil processing plants (at Luanda and Kuito), and cotton mills (at Dondo). An industrial zone has been developed on the outskirts of Luanda thanks to aid from South Africa.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas6 800M m³2019
oil, crude62 676.91000 t0202
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay98$1000 t2019
gypsum1901000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite1121000 t2018
granite - cu m108.41000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds8 0001000 ct2020
diamonds, industrial - ct8411000 ct2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8 646.66M kWh2018
- thermal2 820.94M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3 4351000 kW2019
- thermal2 2501000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 685.6M kWh2018
total installed capacity5 3961000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen23.51000 t2019
petrol457.31000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 1001000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.5311000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production3 852.689M US$2019
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels92.418% of goods exports2018
manufactures4.037% of goods exports2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202020 978M US$ -
201934 726M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20209 716M US$ -
201914 127M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures717M US$2019
Number of arrivals218 000units2019
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Communications


The Benguela railway line to Luau was re-activated in 2013 (more than 1500 km long), which could take mining products from Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the port of Lobito; in 2010-2011 the line (480 km) came back into operation between Luanda and the north-eastern province of Malanje, famous for its diamonds.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown6 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 4371000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers3.741per 1000 pop.2019
Computers6$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.4years2011
Graduates16 421units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level5 620 915units2015
Students, secondary level2 034 150units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.1per 1000 pop.2012
Physicians0.21per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.9% of adults2019
HIV, total2.6%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums8$units2012
Museums, visitors65 755units2012
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.032% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking49.6%2019
Access to electricity45.67%2019
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