Form of Government: Presidential republic
Area: 1 246 700 sq km
Population: 30 175 553 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 24.20 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 4° - 18° S; long. 12° - 24° E
Capital: Luanda (capital) 2 571 861 inhab. (2019);
Currency: kwanza (100 cêntimos)
Human development index: 0.581 (rank: 147)
President: João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço (MPLA), in office since 26 September 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 23 August 2017: People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), 150; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), 51; others, 19
Internet: www.ine.gov.ao (Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Angola)
Member of AU, OAS observer, OPEC, SADC, UN, WTO

Angola

Angola, República de Angola
Useful information

International license plate code ANG
International dialling code 00244
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ao

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Luanda 25.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Luanda 27/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Luanda 7/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Luanda 374
Days of rainfall (annual average) Luanda 31

Politics and current affairs

João Lourenço, former Minister of Defense and candidate for the MPLA, who earned the absolute majority (61.1%) in the legislative elections on 23 August 2017, succeeded José Eduardo dos Santos, in power since 1979, on 26 September 2017.

Geography.
Angola is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north and north-east, by Zambia to the south, and by Namibia to the south; the Atlantic Ocean lies off its western coastline which is 1600 km long.
The interior is a vast plateau, the east of which is fringed with mountains (the Serra Môco, 2620 m) which slope steeply down towards the Atlantic Ocean (into which the M’Bridge and Cuanza rivers flow). The central areas are washed by tributaries of the River Congo in the north (by the Cuango and the Cassai rivers) and the River Zambezi in the south-east. The province of Cabinda is an Angolan exclave situated between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of Congo. Since the plateau is quite high, about 1200 m on average, the climate is fairly temperate.

Government


Formerly a Portuguese colony and later an overseas province of Portugal (1951), Angola gained independence on 11 November 1975 in the midst of a bitter civil war between the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA, well-disposed towards the West and linked to the discriminatory regime in South Africa).
The MPLA, led by Agostinho Neto, took charge of the government and UNITA began a long period of guerrilla warfare which appeared to end with the Lisbon peace accords (31 May 1991). However, after the MPLA won the elections in 1992, UNITA took up arms again, largely financed by the illegal trade of diamonds. In 2002, after the death of their leader Jonas Savimbi (on 22 February of that year), the UNITA rebels agreed to the cease-fire put forward by the government, in exchange for an amnesty.
Since 2006, an agreement has also been in place with the separatist movement of Cabinda, the Angolan exclave with rich oil reserves. There thus began a period of normalization which resulted in elections in 2008. An armed separatist movement is active in the oil-rich exclave of Cabinda.
According to the 2010 Constitution, the unicameral Parliament consists of 220 elected members with a five-year term; the head of the party that receives the highest number of votes is elected President of the Republic.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.6%2015
Army93.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.6per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Luanda2 571 861inhab.2019
Huambo226 145inhab.2005
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

According to the UNHCR (the UN refugee agency), the repatriation program for about 500 000 refugees who fled Angola during the civil war has now been concluded.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate41.32017
Death rate8.42017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black97%2005
mestizo2%2005


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic41%2014
Protestant38%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
Khoisan
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years48.1%2018
15-29 years25.3%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Since 2014, the economy, strongly tied to the export of hydrocarbons, has slowed in growth following a drop in market prices. The government has reduced fuel subsidies to alleviate pressure on public accounts. The central bank adopted a restrictive monetary policy in order to contain the gradual depreciation of the kwanza, which had been tied to the dollar until January 2018. 2018 closed with a surplus, but growth in sectors not tied to hydrocarbons was weak, while the unfavourable economic situation led to a gradual increase in the public debt. Foreign investments, specifically from China and the EU, played a considerable role in building infrastructure within the country.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)191.94index2016
Balance of trade26 681.7M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 759 956units2018
Active population, Females50.1%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females52.7%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses5 209 000M LCU2018
Revenues4 404 200M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture49.1%2018
industry8.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.8%2017
industry43.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation498.4BN LCU2018
International reserves15 410.4M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Only a small percentage of the land is cultivated and a large amount of the food requirement must be imported. The main crops are cassava, bananas and oil palm for export. Important fishing ports are Luanda, Sumbe, Porto Amboim, Benguela and Namibe: the fish caught is partly exported (crustaceans).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.16%2015
forests46.41%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 891.2661000 t2017
maize2 6801000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava11 747.9381000 t2017
potatoes807.311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages353.3881000 t2017
tomatoes16.341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry375.4941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed4.1291000 t2017
groundnuts244.8461000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits280.5291000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.4421000 t2017
coffee15.4361000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane564.9181000 t2017
tobacco2.8571000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton5.6711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.8321000 t2014
sisal0.5441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total4 390.8761000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts2.1191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits283.8131000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes283.8131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas4 301.881000 t2017
pineapples727.2241000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize2 534.861000 ha2017
millet2701000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 011.6191000 ha2017
potatoes180.1041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages125.5921000 ha2017
tomatoes6.1391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry7701000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed16.1671000 ha2017
groundnuts3401000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit23.2691000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa2.9961000 ha2017
coffee47.4571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane14.471000 ha2017
tobacco2.7481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.9751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.1721000 ha2014
sisal0.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts2.8571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits26.71000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes26.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas142.4821000 ha2017
pineapples61.5011000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber5 896 9322017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 988.0361000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes4 988.0361000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs3 385.9411000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 149.1751000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 504.8991000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses4.4641000 heads2017
asses and mules4.4641000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds36 5001000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey23.4341000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.5371000 t2014
cheese1.2891000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs6 356t2017
freshwater fishes24 940t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The main mining resources are oil (at Cabinda, Benfica, Luanda, Cacuaco, Tobias and Galinda), diamonds (at Dundo and in the provinces of Cuando-Cubango and Malanje) and iron (at Cassinda and Saia). Oil extraction forms approximately 90% of the export value, bound mainly for China. This, with its related activities, is the main source of the country’s GDP. International oil companies from the United States and Europe are involved in joint venture operations and production sharing agreements with Sonangol, the national oil company. Bituminous substances are also extracted (at Libongo and Husso), manganese (at Quicuimbe and Quitota), copper (at Mavoio and Bembe), sea salt (at Lobito), natural gas and phosphates.
Among the basic industrial segments, oil-refining (at Luanda, Cabinda and a new plant under construction at Lobito), steelworks (at Luanda) and cement works (at Luanda, Benguela and Lobito) stand out. The manufacturing industry is centred on sugar refineries (at Cacuso near Malanje), breweries (at Bengo, Cabinda, Dondo, Huambo, Lobito, Luanda and Lubango), tobacco factories (at Luanda and Lobito), oil processing plants (at Luanda and Kuito), and cotton mills (at Dondo and Luanda). An industrial zone has been developed on the outskirts of Luanda thanks to aid from South Africa.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas3 100M m³2017
oil, crude79 453.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay981000 t2016
gypsum1901000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite160.91000 t2016
granite - cu m108.41000 m³2013
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds8 5001000 ct2018
diamonds, industrial - ct9021000 ct2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 757M kWh2016
- thermal4 273.24M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 2801000 kW2016
- hydro1 2701000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 203.24M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 6131000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen31000 t2014
petrol457.31000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 1001000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.61000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.7t2003
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp151000 t2015
wood pulp, total151000 t2015
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 0001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production8 036.4M US$2017
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels94.994% of goods exports2015
ores and metals3.316% of goods exports2015
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201842 124M US$ -
201734 614M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201815 442M US$ -
201714 463M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 216M US$2017
Number of arrivals261 000units2017
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Communications


The Benguela railway line to Luau was re-activated in 2013 (more than 1500 km long), which could take mining products from Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the port of Lobito; in 2010-2011 the line (480 km) came back into operation between Luanda and the north-eastern province of Malanje, famous for its diamonds.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown6 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 581.21000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers3.254per 1000 pop.2017
Computers6per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.4years2011
Graduates16 421units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level95 827units2016
Teachers, secondary level75 997units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.1per 1000 pop.2012
Physicians0.11per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.9% of adults2017
HIV, total2.6%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums8units2012
Museums, visitors65 755units2012
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking48.05%2016
Access to electricity41.886%2017
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