Form of Government: Republic
Area: 2 381 741 sq km
Population: 41 721 203 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 17.52 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 19° N; long. 9° - 12° E
Capital: Algiers=El Djazaïr (capital) 2 916 000 inhab. (2011); Algiers 5 000 000 inhab. (2011), urban agglomeration
Currency: Algerian dinar (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.745 (rank: 83)
President: Abdelaziz Bouteflika (FLN), in office since 27 April 1999 and last re-elected on 17 April 2014
Prime Minister: Ahmed Ouyahia (RND), since 16 August 2017
: seats based on the elections of 4 May 2017: National Liberation Front (FLN), 164; National Rally for Democracy (RND), 100; Movement of Society for Peace-Front of Change (Sunni Islamist coalition), 33; Rally for Hope for Algeria (Islamist), 19; Nahda-Adala-Bina Union (Islamist coalition), 15; Future Front, 14; Socialist Forces Front, 14; Algerian Popular Movement, 13; Workers' Party (PT, left), 11; independents, 28; others, 51
Internet: www.ons.dz (Office National des Statistiques)
Member of Arab League, AU, OAS observer, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer

Algeria

Al-Jazā’ir, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Jāzā’irīyah ad-Dīmūqrațīyah ash-Sha‘bīyah
Useful information

International license plate code DZ
International dialling code 00213
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .dz

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Algiers 18.3; Tamanrasset 20.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Algiers 12/24.5; Tamanrasset 11.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Algiers 10/5; Tamanrasset 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Algiers 695; Tamanrasset 44
Days of rainfall (annual average) Algiers 76; Tamanrasset 21

Politics and current affairs

Despite his precarious health, President Bouteflika was re-nominated as a candidate for the 2019 elections. The decision was likely owed to the inability of the factions within the FLN to agree on a successor.

Geography.
Algeria is bordered by Tunisia and Libya to the east, by Niger, Mali and Mauritania to the south and by Morocco and Western Sahara to the west; the Mediterranean Sea lies off its north coast. From north to south, the well-irrigated, fertile coastal Tell with its Mediterranean climate gives way to the mountainous land of the Tell Atlas in the north and the Sahara Atlas in the south. Between them lies a dry steppe plateau. The Sahara Desert, dotted with oases, rises up in the south to the Ahaggar Massif (Mt. Tahat, 2908 m).

Government


A French colony since 1830, Algeria became independent on 3 July 1962, after eight years of war between France and the National Liberation Front (FLN) which since then has always controlled the government.
In 1989, following changes in the international situation and the development of strong people’s movements, a new Constitution brought an end to the Socialist one-party system.
In the first round of the political elections (on 26 December, 1991), the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) proved highly successful, but its access to power was blocked by the intervention of the armed forces, which called off the second round of the elections, dissolved the FIS and arrested its leaders. There then began a period of fierce fighting between government forces and fundamentalist groups. The latter were responsible for massacres in which many civilians were killed (more than 150 000 between 1993 and 2005). In 2006, the “Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation” was approved, granting a general amnesty to the terrorists and ending the civil war. There are separatist movements in Kabylie, the Berber region south-west of Algiers, and a rebel fundamentalist movement associated with Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.
According to the 1989 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic, whose powers of government are very wide, is elected by direct vote for a five-year term, as is the National People’s Assembly, composed of 462 members; the Council of the Nation has 144 members (48 appointed by the President and 96 elected for a six-year term) half of whom must be renewed every three years. No political parties are allowed whose ideology is based on race, religion, gender or language: thus Islamic and ethnic minority parties are illegal. Islam has been declared the religion of state and practices which are contrary to “Islamic morality” are forbidden.


Justice.
The civil and penal legal system is based on the French system, with Islamic influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.8%2015
Army84.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes423.4per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Algiers=El Djazaïr2 916 000inhab.2011
Oran=Wahran609 940inhab.2008
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Algiers5 000 000inhab.2011
Constantine943 000inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate25.42017
Death rate4.52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab74%2000
Berber26%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99%2016
other1%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
French
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years29.3%2017
15-29 years24.1%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Since 2014, the fall in hydrocarbon prices has reduced revenue and sent the country’s accounts into the red. The government increased some taxes and disincentivized imports, which have been suspended for many products since January 2018, but this did not stop a sharp increase in the deficit and a rapid drop in the stabilization fund fed by oil revenue.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)151.45index2016
Balance of trade-11 204M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 106 186units2017
Active population, Females18.3%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12%2017
Unemployment rate, Females35%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 297 600M LCU2016
Revenues5 110 200M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.8%2017
industry47%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.7%2016
industry36.1%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4 781.7BN LCU2017
International reserves104 852.5M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Farming is practised on the coastal strip (olives, watermelons, vegetables and citrus fruits), on the plateaux (cereal crops, sheep and goat livestock) and in the oases (dates at Biskra, El-Oued, Ghardaïa and Ouargla).
To meet the water demand, in addition to conventional resources, the desalination of seawater is highly important.
The main fishing-ports are Ghazaouet, Mestghanem, Bouharoun, Cherchell, Annaba, Bou Zedjar, Beni-Saf, Algiers.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.55%2015
forests0.82%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley919.9071000 t2016
cereals, total3 4451000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4 782.691000 t2016
roots and tubers, total4 782.691000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes97.1391000 t2016
cabbages104.8811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.8751000 t2016
beans, green79.0991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes570.9721000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives696.9621000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts7.0921000 t2016
rapeseed23.1351000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco9.841000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0781000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples503.3031000 t2016
apricots256.7711000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds66.0951000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 203.7521000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes0.5541000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.4931000 t2016
dates1 029.5961000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.891000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley706.4291000 ha2016
maize0.8171000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes156.1961000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes5.1671000 ha2016
cabbages4.1611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.311000 ha2016
beans, green10.71000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape66.2641000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive424.0281000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3.3911000 ha2016
rapeseed11.6781000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco4.761000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.2671000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples40.5531000 ha2016
apricots38.2391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds39.691000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits58.7491000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.4531000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.0181000 ha2016
dates167.2791000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 722 3722016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 081.3061000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes2 081.3061000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs4.8721000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep28 135.9861000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 934.7011000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses112.8461000 heads2016
asses and mules132.8291000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels379.0941000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds137 2591000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey5.4251000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.9161000 t2014
cheese1.541000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs3 965t2016
freshwater fishes990t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The largest oilfields are at Hassi-Messaoud, Rhourde el Baguel, El Gassi-El Agreb, Tin Fouyé, Edjeleh, Gassi Touil, Ohanet, Haoud Berkaoui and Zarzaïtine; natural gas reserves are found at Hassi R’Mel, Ain-Salah, Rhourde, Alrar and Messdar. A sophisticated network of oil- and gas- pipelines connects the fields with the petro-chemical companies and ports on the coast: two sections of pipeline start at Hassi-Messaoud, one bound for Arzew and the other for Ouenza, where it splits again to supply Béjaïa and Skikda; other stretches convey crude oil from the oilfields at Zarzaïtine, Edjeleh, Ouan Taredert, El-Abed Larache, Tin Fouyé and Tiguentourine to La Skhirra (Tunisia). Gas pipelines run from Hassi R’Mel to the Algerian coast (Arzew), then across Tunisia and the Sicilian Channel to Mazara del Vallo (Sicily), in Italy. Other mining resources include iron (at Ouenza, Bou Khadra, Beni-Saf, Khanguet el Mouhad, Anini and Rouina), phosphates, building material, zinc, lead and copper ores (from which silver is also extracted), and gold.
Industry.
Algeria’s oil-refining capacity is considerable (refineries at Algiers, Adrar, Arzew, Skikda and Hassi-Messaoud); helium is extracted from natural gas plants in Arzew and Skikda. Other important industries include the chemical and fertilizer industries, steel (at Annaba and Ouahran), and cement. Other active segments include the textile, engineering (vehicle assembly at Algiers) electronics (Sidi Bel Abbès) and food industries.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas94 438M m³2017
oil, crude65 118.81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore7001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite601000 t2015
bentonite33.51000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite21000 t2016
kaolin1921000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold85kg2015
silver16kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal64 461.44M kWh2015
- hydro144M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal16 7601000 kW2015
- hydro2751000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation64 684.44M kWh2015
total installed capacity17 1241000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.3501000 t2013
lead91000 t2011
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes243no.2014
cars60 606no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners28 200no.2015
fridges50 600no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1151000 t2015
petrol5 673.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1 2001000 t2017
caustic soda0.71000 t2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m7.4M m2015
cotton yarn2.91000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear400 100pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1651000 t2014
fish, preserved4.21000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t9.21000 t2015
tobacco7 483t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint21000 t2016
other paper44.51000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement23 3001000 t2015
sheet glass261000 m²2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production867M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production3 593.6M US$2011
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Hydrocarbons account for more than 90% of ex-ports.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
crude oil and petroleum products 19 731, natural gas 14 074, chemicals 442, fertilizers 327, sugar and derived products 228, phosphates 55, dates 52, washing machines and appliances 42, glass 31

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels93.992% of goods exports2016
manufactures4.618% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy5 629M US$2017
France4 431M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 318M US$2017
France4 298M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201734 925M US$ -
201630 026M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201746 129M US$ -
201647 089M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures475.1M US$2016
Number of arrivals2 039 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown44 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 241.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers76.646per 1000 pop.2017
Computers10.7per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.4years2011
Graduates335 096units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level169 931units2016
Teachers, secondary level176 375units2004
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.7per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians1.7per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2016
Malaria432cases2016
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.07% of GDP2005
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking92.62%2016
Access to electricity99.439%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear8.1%2011
education, culture, recreation3.2%2011
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