Form of Government: Republic
Area: 2 381 741 sq km
Population: 43 851 043 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 18.41 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 19° N; long. 9° - 12° E
Capital: Algiers=El Djazaïr (capital) 3 415 800 inhab. (2011); Algiers 7 796 900 inhab. (2011), urban agglomeration
Currency: Algerian dinar (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.748 (rank: 91)
President: Abdelmadjid Tebboune (FLN), elected 12 December 2019
Prime Minister: Aïmene Benabderrahmane (independent), since 30 June 2021
National People's Assembly: seats based on the elections of 12 June 2021: National Liberation Front (FLN), 98; Movement of Society for Peace-Front of Change (Sunni Islamist coalition), 65; Democratic National Rally (RND), 58; Future Front, 48; National Construction Movement, 39; others, 99
Internet: www.ons.dz (Office National des Statistiques)
Member of Arab League, AU, OAS observer, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer

Algeria

Al-Jazā’ir, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Jāzā’irīyah ad-Dīmūqrațīyah ash-Sha‘bīyah
Useful information

International license plate code DZ
International dialling code 00213
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .dz

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Algiers 18.3; Tamanrasset 20.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Algiers 12/24.5; Tamanrasset 11.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Algiers 10/5; Tamanrasset 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Algiers 695; Tamanrasset 44
Days of rainfall (annual average) Algiers 76; Tamanrasset 21

Politics and current affairs

The referendum held on 1 November 2020 approved the government-proposed amendments to the constitution, but most of the population did not turn up to vote. Dissatisfaction was seen in the resumption of protests, which resulted in early elections (12 June 2021); in the case of the referendum, with a low turnout (23%).

Geography.
Algeria is bordered by Tunisia and Libya to the east, by Niger, Mali and Mauritania to the south and by Morocco and Western Sahara to the west; the Mediterranean Sea lies off its north coast. From north to south, the well-irrigated, fertile coastal Tell with its Mediterranean climate gives way to the mountainous land of the Tell Atlas in the north and the Sahara Atlas in the south. Between them lies a dry steppe plateau. The Sahara Desert, dotted with oases, rises up in the south to the Ahaggar Massif (Mt. Tahat, 2908 m).

Government


A French colony since 1830, Algeria became independent on 3 July 1962, after eight years of war between France and the National Liberation Front (FLN) which since then has always controlled the government.
In 1989, following changes in the international situation and the development of strong people’s movements, a new Constitution brought an end to the Socialist one-party system.
In the first round of the political elections (on 26 December, 1991), the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) proved highly successful, but its access to power was blocked by the intervention of the armed forces, which called off the second round of the elections, dissolved the FIS and arrested its leaders. There then began a period of fierce fighting between government forces and fundamentalist groups. The latter were responsible for massacres in which many civilians were killed (more than 150 000 between 1993 and 2005). In 2006, the “Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation” was approved, granting a general amnesty to the terrorists and ending the civil war. From 1999 to 2019 the presidency was held by A. Bouteflika, who resigned following a large popular protest movement (hirak). There are separatist movements in Kabylia, the Berber region south-west of Algiers, and a rebel fundamentalist movement associated with Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.
According to the 1989 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic, whose powers of government are very wide, is elected by direct vote for a five-year term, as is the National People’s Assembly, composed of 407 members; the Council of the Nation has 144 members (48 appointed by the President and 96 elected for a six-year term) half of whom must be renewed every three years. No political parties are allowed whose ideology is based on race, religion, gender or language: thus Islamic and ethnic minority parties are illegal. Islam has been declared the religion of state and practices which are contrary to “Islamic morality” are forbidden.


Justice.
The civil and penal legal system is based on the French system, with Islamic influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.8%2015
Army84.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes423.4per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Algiers=El Djazaïr3 415 800inhab.2011
Oran=Wahran609 940inhab.2008
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Algiers7 796 900inhab.2011
Constantine943 000inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.5832019
Death rate4.7162019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab74$%2000
Berber26$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99$%2017
other1$%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
French
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years29.5%2020
15-29 years22.2%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Falling oil prices due to the COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced revenue and worsened cash flow in current accounts, depleting foreign exchange reserves and devaluing the dinar. These negative effects also persist in 2021, despite the partial recovery. Increased unemployment has also added to growing social unrest. The rigid and statist economic structure does not help diversification, makes it difficult to deal with the onerous subsidy system and does not contribute to reducing the high rate of youth unemployment.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)151.45index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)111.5index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 231 856units2020
Active population, Females17.6%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females31.7%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 726 000M LCU2019
Revenues6 314 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.9%2019
industry30.7%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.889%2019
industry38.977%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation6 195.674BN LCU2020
International reserves59 434.389M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Farming is practised on the coastal strip (olives, watermelons, vegetables and citrus fruits), on the plateaux (potatoes, cereal crops, vines, sheep and goat livestock) and in the oases (dates at Biskra, El-Oued, Ghardaïa and Ouargla). Wine production is relevant. To meet the water demand, in addition to conventional resources, the desalination of seawater is highly important. The main fishing-ports are Ghazaouet, Mestghanem, Bouharoun, Cherchell, Annaba, Bou Zedjar, Beni-Saf, Algiers.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.576%2018
forests0.81%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 647.7461000 t2019
cereals, total5 633.5131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes5 020.2491000 t2019
roots and tubers, total5 020.2491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes119.6361000 t2019
cabbages116.4261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.7891000 t2019
beans, green95.0221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes549.8331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives868.7541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts12.6021000 t2019
rapeseed22.9171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco15.1641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples558.831000 t2019
apricots209.2041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds72.4121000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 584.0981000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.6061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.1591000 t2019
dates1 136.0251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.9961000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 133.0051000 ha2019
maize1.5331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes157.8641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes5.7921000 ha2019
cabbages4.3171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.9121000 ha2019
beans, green12.7061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape61.6761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive431.6341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4.8861000 ha2019
rapeseed11.5881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco4.791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.2751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples32.9891000 ha2019
apricots30.8611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds35.381000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits64.1891000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.4541000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.0071000 ha2019
dates170.0821000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 876 8932019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 780.5911000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 780.5911000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs4.5961000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep29 428.9291000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 986.1161000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses86.9871000 heads2019
asses and mules102.8841000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels416.5191000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds138 7711000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey6.3471000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.6831000 t2018
cheese2.6791000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs3 596.579t2019
freshwater fishes2 383.53t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The largest oilfields are at Hassi-Messaoud, Rhourde el Baguel, El Gassi-El Agreb, Tin Fouyé, Edjeleh, Gassi Touil, Ohanet, Haoud Berkaoui and Zarzaïtine; natural gas reserves are found at Hassi R’Mel, Ain-Salah, Rhourde, Alrar and Messdar.
A sophisticated network of oil and gas pipelines connects the fields with the petro-chemical companies and ports on the coast: two sections of pipeline start at Hassi-Messaoud, one bound for Arzew and the other for Ouenza, where it splits again to supply Béjaïa and Skikda; other stretches convey crude oil from the oilfields at Zarzaïtine, Edjeleh, Ouan Taredert, El-Abed Larache, Tin Fouyé and Tiguentourine to La Skhirra (Tunisia). Gas pipelines run from Hassi R’Mel to the Algerian coast (Arzew), then across Tunisia and the Sicilian Channel to Mazara del Vallo (Sicily), in Italy.
Other mining resources include iron (at Ouenza, Bou Khadra, Beni-Saf, Khanguet el Mouhad, Anini and Rouina), phosphates, building material, zinc, lead and copper ores (from which silver is also extracted), and gold.
Industry.
Algeria’s oil-refining capacity is considerable (refineries at Algiers, Adrar, Arzew, Skikda and Hassi-Messaoud); helium is extracted from natural gas plants in Arzew and Skikda. Other important products are chemicals and fertilizers, steel (at Annaba, El Milia and Ouahran) and cement. Textiles, engineering (vehicle assembly at Algiers) electronics (Sidi Bel Abbès) and food industries are also relevant.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas81 456.4M m³2020
oil, crude55 981.61000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore7771000 t2019
zinc1$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite40$1000 t2019
bentonite36$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite3$1000 t2019
kaolin1001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold286kg2018
silver50$kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal71 327.2M kWh2018
- other renew.626M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal20 4801000 kW2018
- other renew.4581000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation72 057.03M kWh2018
total installed capacity21 2081000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.3501000 t2013
lead9$1000 t2011
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes700no.2018
cars754no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners42 300no.2018
fridges18 500no.2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1151000 t2018
petrol5 673.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 2001000 t2020
caustic soda0.71000 t2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m3.6M m2018
cotton yarn2.11000 t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear396 800pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1601000 t2018
fish, preserved4.21000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t9.21000 t2017
tobacco4 571.7t2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint2$1000 t2019
other paper44.51000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement31 1001000 t2018
sheet glass10$1000 m²2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production724.561M US$2017
food, beverages and tobacco production4 286.64M US$2017
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Hydrocarbons account for more than 90% of exports.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
crude oil and petroleum products 19 731, natural gas 14 074, chemicals 442, fertilizers 327, sugar and derived products 228, phosphates 55, dates 52, washing machines and appliances 42, glass 31

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels96.112% of goods exports2017
manufactures2.671% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy5 629M US$2017
France4 431M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 318M US$2017
France4 298M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202021 517M US$ -
201935 824M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202035 122M US$ -
201941 934M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures668M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 371 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown44 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 748.71000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers83.217per 1000 pop.2019
Computers10.7per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.4years2011
Graduates330 434units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 429 994units2018
Students, secondary level4 572 513units2011
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.9per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians1.72per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
Malaria1 014cases2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.543% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99.3%2019
Access to electricity99.5%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear8.1%2011
education, culture, recreation3.2%2011
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