Form of Government: Republic
Area: 2 381 741 sq km
Population: 42 578 000 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 17.88 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 19° N; long. 9° - 12° E
Capital: Algiers=El Djazaïr (capital) 3 415 800 inhab. (2011); Algiers 7 796 900 inhab. (2011), urban agglomeration
Currency: Algerian dinar (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.754 (rank: 85)
Interim President: Abdelkader Bensalah (RND), since 9 April 2019
Prime Minister: Noureddine Bedoui (independent), since 11 March 2019
National People's Assembly: seats based on the elections of 4 May 2017: National Liberation Front (FLN), 164; National Rally for Democracy (RND), 100; Movement of Society for Peace-Front of Change (Sunni Islamist coalition), 33; Rally for Hope for Algeria (Islamist), 19; Nahda-Adala-Bina Union (Islamist coalition), 15; Future Front, 14; Socialist Forces Front, 14; Algerian Popular Movement, 13; Workers' Party (PT, left), 11; independents, 28; others, 51
Internet: www.ons.dz (Office National des Statistiques)
Member of Arab League, AU, OAS observer, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer

Algeria

Al-Jazā’ir, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Jāzā’irīyah ad-Dīmūqrațīyah ash-Sha‘bīyah
Useful information

International license plate code DZ
International dialling code 00213
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .dz

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Algiers 18.3; Tamanrasset 20.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Algiers 12/24.5; Tamanrasset 11.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Algiers 10/5; Tamanrasset 10/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Algiers 695; Tamanrasset 44
Days of rainfall (annual average) Algiers 76; Tamanrasset 21

Politics and current affairs

On 22 February 2019, widespread protests began against the candidacy of President A. Bouteflika, who is running for his fifth term; the protests led to his resignation on 2 April. New elections, initially planned for 4 July, were postponed indefinitely on 2 June by the constitutional court.

Geography.
Algeria is bordered by Tunisia and Libya to the east, by Niger, Mali and Mauritania to the south and by Morocco and Western Sahara to the west; the Mediterranean Sea lies off its north coast. From north to south, the well-irrigated, fertile coastal Tell with its Mediterranean climate gives way to the mountainous land of the Tell Atlas in the north and the Sahara Atlas in the south. Between them lies a dry steppe plateau. The Sahara Desert, dotted with oases, rises up in the south to the Ahaggar Massif (Mt. Tahat, 2908 m).

Government


A French colony since 1830, Algeria became independent on 3 July 1962, after eight years of war between France and the National Liberation Front (FLN) which since then has always controlled the government.
In 1989, following changes in the international situation and the development of strong people’s movements, a new Constitution brought an end to the Socialist one-party system.
In the first round of the political elections (on 26 December, 1991), the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) proved highly successful, but its access to power was blocked by the intervention of the armed forces, which called off the second round of the elections, dissolved the FIS and arrested its leaders. There then began a period of fierce fighting between government forces and fundamentalist groups. The latter were responsible for massacres in which many civilians were killed (more than 150 000 between 1993 and 2005). In 2006, the “Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation” was approved, granting a general amnesty to the terrorists and ending the civil war. There are separatist movements in Kabylie, the Berber region south-west of Algiers, and a rebel fundamentalist movement associated with Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.
According to the 1989 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic, whose powers of government are very wide, is elected by direct vote for a five-year term, as is the National People’s Assembly, composed of 462 members; the Council of the Nation has 144 members (48 appointed by the President and 96 elected for a six-year term) half of whom must be renewed every three years. No political parties are allowed whose ideology is based on race, religion, gender or language: thus Islamic and ethnic minority parties are illegal. Islam has been declared the religion of state and practices which are contrary to “Islamic morality” are forbidden.


Justice.
The civil and penal legal system is based on the French system, with Islamic influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.8%2015
Army84.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes423.4per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Algiers=El Djazaïr3 415 800inhab.2011
Oran=Wahran609 940inhab.2008
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Algiers7 796 900inhab.2011
Constantine943 000inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate24.42018
Death rate4.52018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab74%2000
Berber26%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)99%2017
other1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
French
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years29.5%2018
15-29 years23.3%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Since 2014, the fall in hydrocarbon prices has reduced revenue and sent the country’s accounts into the red. The government increased some taxes and disincentivized imports, but this did not stop a sharp increase in the deficit and a rapid drop in the stabilization fund fed by oil revenue. The rigid and statist economic structure does not help diversification, makes it difficult to deal with the onerous subsidy system and does not contribute to reducing the high rate of youth unemployment.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)151.45index2016
Balance of trade-6 118.7M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 238 275units2018
Active population, Females17.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12.2%2018
Unemployment rate, Females31.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 282 600M LCU2017
Revenues6 047 900M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.3%2018
industry30.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.7%2017
industry38.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4 986.8BN LCU2018
International reserves87 382.9M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Farming is practised on the coastal strip (olives, watermelons, vegetables and citrus fruits), on the plateaux (potatoes, cereal crops, vines, sheep and goat livestock) and in the oases (dates at Biskra, El-Oued, Ghardaïa and Ouargla). Wine production is relevant.
To meet the water demand, in addition to conventional resources, the desalination of seawater is highly important.
The main fishing-ports are Ghazaouet, Mestghanem, Bouharoun, Cherchell, Annaba, Bou Zedjar, Beni-Saf, Algiers.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.55%2015
forests0.82%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley969.6961000 t2017
cereals, total3 478.0731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4 606.4031000 t2017
roots and tubers, total4 606.4031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes108.561000 t2017
cabbages91.9421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.481000 t2017
beans, green98.0031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes566.5791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives684.4611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts10.1711000 t2017
rapeseed21.9271000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco10.2921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples494.2391000 t2017
apricots256.891000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds61.9431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1 344.8291000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes0.5551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.2211000 t2017
dates1 058.5591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.6681000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 303.1311000 ha2017
maize0.6581000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes148.6921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes5.5321000 ha2017
cabbages3.6991000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.9021000 ha2017
beans, green11.4341000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape69.5691000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive432.9611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3.6661000 ha2017
rapeseed11.0591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco4.8521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.2661000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples44.621000 ha2017
apricots44.3071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds50.11000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits69.1181000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.011000 ha2017
dates167.6631000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 773 3922017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 895.1261000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 895.1261000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs4.7491000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep28 393.6021000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5 007.8941000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses108.9441000 heads2017
asses and mules126.7841000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels381.8821000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds131 6241000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey5.4251000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.9161000 t2014
cheese1.541000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs3 965t2017
freshwater fishes1 045t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The largest oilfields are at Hassi-Messaoud, Rhourde el Baguel, El Gassi-El Agreb, Tin Fouyé, Edjeleh, Gassi Touil, Ohanet, Haoud Berkaoui and Zarzaïtine; natural gas reserves are found at Hassi R’Mel, Ain-Salah, Rhourde, Alrar and Messdar.
A sophisticated network of oil and gas pipelines connects the fields with the petro-chemical companies and ports on the coast: two sections of pipeline start at Hassi-Messaoud, one bound for Arzew and the other for Ouenza, where it splits again to supply Béjaïa and Skikda; other stretches convey crude oil from the oilfields at Zarzaïtine, Edjeleh, Ouan Taredert, El-Abed Larache, Tin Fouyé and Tiguentourine to La Skhirra (Tunisia). Gas pipelines run from Hassi R’Mel to the Algerian coast (Arzew), then across Tunisia and the Sicilian Channel to Mazara del Vallo (Sicily), in Italy.
Other mining resources include iron (at Ouenza, Bou Khadra, Beni-Saf, Khanguet el Mouhad, Anini and Rouina), phosphates, building material, zinc, lead and copper ores (from which silver is also extracted), and gold.
Industry.
Algeria’s oil-refining capacity is considerable (refineries at Algiers, Adrar, Arzew, Skikda and Hassi-Messaoud); helium is extracted from natural gas plants in Arzew and Skikda.
Other important products are chemicals and fertilizers, steel (at Annaba and Ouahran) and cement. Textiles, engineering (vehicle assembly at Algiers) electronics (Sidi Bel Abbès) and food industries are also relevant.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas94 438M m³2017
oil, crude62 775.91000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore6101000 t2016
zinc0.6271000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite521000 t2016
bentonite35.61000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite21000 t2017
kaolin961000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold102kg2016
silver20kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal66 423.22M kWh2016
- other renew.368M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal18 7421000 kW2016
- hydro2751000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation66 891.22M kWh2016
total installed capacity19 2711000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.3501000 t2013
lead91000 t2011
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes68no.2015
cars70 597no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners9 600no.2017
fridges30 500no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen291000 t2016
petrol5 673.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 1001000 t2018
caustic soda0.71000 t2012
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m7.6M m2017
cotton yarn3.11000 t2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear352 500pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1651000 t2014
fish, preserved4.21000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes - t9.21000 t2017
tobacco4 571.7t2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint21000 t2017
other paper44.51000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement23 3541000 t2016
sheet glass91000 m²2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 012.6M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production5 990.6M US$2015
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Hydrocarbons account for more than 90% of exports.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
crude oil and petroleum products 19 731, natural gas 14 074, chemicals 442, fertilizers 327, sugar and derived products 228, phosphates 55, dates 52, washing machines and appliances 42, glass 31

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels94.516% of goods exports2017
manufactures4.266% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy5 629M US$2017
France4 431M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China8 318M US$2017
France4 298M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201840 883M US$ -
201735 191M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201847 002M US$ -
201746 059M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures632M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 451 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown44 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried6 241.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers76.646per 1000 pop.2017
Computers10.7per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.4years2011
Graduates335 096units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level176 809units2017
Teachers, secondary level176 375units2004
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.9per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians1.9per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Malaria453cases2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.5% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking92.62%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear8.1%2011
education, culture, recreation3.2%2011
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