Form of Government: Republic
Area: 28 748 sq km
Population: 2 829 741 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 98.43 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 43° - 40° N; long. 19° - 22° E
Capital: Tirana=Tiranë (capital) 475 577 inhab. (2018);
Currency: lek (100 qindarka)
Human development index: 0.795 (rank: 69)
President: Ilir Meta (LSI), elected 28 April 2017, in office since 24 July 2017
Prime Minister: Edi Rama (PS), since 15 September 2013, re-elected 25 June 2017 and 28 April 2021
Assembly of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 25 April 2021: Socialist Party (PS), 74; Democratic Party (PD, centre-right), 59; Socialist Movement for Integration (LSI, centre-left), 4; Social Democratic Party (PSD, centre-left), 3
Internet: www.instat.gov.al (Institute of Statistics)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO

Albania

Shqipëria, Republika e Shqipërisë
Useful information

International license plate code AL
International dialling code 00355
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .al

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Tirana 15.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tirana 7/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tirana 10/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tirana 1345
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tirana 98

Politics and current affairs

The vaccination campaign began in the country on 11 January 2021. Following the approval of the new electoral law in 2020, parliamentary elections were held on 25 April 2021, which ratified the victory of the Socialists of outgoing prime minister Edi Rama, reconfirmed in the role for his third consecutive term.

Geography.
Albania is bordered by Kosovo and Montenegro to the north, Kosovo and North Macedonia to the north-east and Greece to the south-east. To the west lie the Adriatic Sea and the Straits of Otranto. Much of the country is mountainous (Albanian Alps, Mount Korab, Mount Jablanica), except the coast which is flat and marshy in places. The most important rivers are the Drin, the Shkumbin, the Seman and the Vjosë. Parts of Lake Skadar, Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa are Albanian. The low-lying coast has a Mediterranean climate, while further inland the climate is continental, with precipitation increasing towards the mountains.

Government


Having been declared an independent state in 1912, Albania was temporarily occupied by Italy between 1915 and 1920 and was gradually subdued from 1928 until it was formally annexed by Fascist Italy in 1939. The country regained its independence in 1944 and for a few decades, after the creation of the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania (1946), came under the rule of a rigid Communist regime which isolated it from the rest of the world.
In December 1990, amid an economic crisis and popular protest, the regime gave way to a process of transition towards a parliamentary democracy, marked by mass migration, political and social crises, resulting in armed revolution. The intervention of a UN military mission (April 1997) enabled the country to regain its stability and, in the same year, for political elections to be held. From that moment on, the change in governments had helped aid normalization in the country, up until the tensions registered in recent years. Albania has been a full NATO member since 2009. In June 2014, it formally obtained candidate country status in the process to become a member state of the European Union: in 2020, the EU finally approved the opening of accession negotiations.
According to the new Constitution approved by a referendum on 22 November 1998, legislative power lies in the hands of the People’s Assembly of the Republic of Albania or the Kuvendi (140 elected members with a four-year mandate), which elects the President of the Republic (in office for a five-year term, who can only be re-elected once) and controls the work of the government by expressing confidence in its operations.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1.3% of GDP2019
Military personnel8 000units2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 150.3per 100 000 pop.2020
Homicides1.8per 100 000 pop.2020
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tirana=Tiranë475 577inhab.2018
Durrës113 249inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The percentage of urban population is one of the lowest in Europe, while the birth rate remains one of the highest. Many Albanians are now living in Kosovo, in Greece and in the Republic of North Macedonia.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.92020
Death rate9.72020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Albanian82.6%2011
other15.7%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim56.7%2011
other22$%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Albanian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years17.5%2020
15-29 years24.7%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
After the decline in GDP of 3.5% in 2020 due to the effects of the pandemic, the International Monetary Fund estimates a rebound of the economy in 2021 (+5%).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)143.42index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)102.54index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 408 795units2020
Active population, Females41.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females39$%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses536 507M LCU2020
Revenues425 905M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.7%2019
industry20$%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.032%2020
industry22.55%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation355.48BN LCU2020
International reserves4 817.386M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture continues to represent a significant sector. Olives, grape, tobacco, sugar beet, cotton, sunflower seed and timber production is relatively strong; authorities aim to reduce the illegal cultivation of marijuana.
In mountainous areas, sheep farming is common; fishing, both along the coasts and inland is quite highly developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land25.42%2018
forests28.813%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley7.9421000 t2019
cereals, total666.0651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes260.6611000 t2019
roots and tubers, total260.6611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages70.4111000 t2019
carrots and turnips13.5711000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry24.7821000 t2019
beans, green12.2481000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes189.9041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives98.3131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.6051000 t2019
sunflower seed1.0131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops2.2661000 t2019
sugar beet30.7051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.6841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples105.9331000 t2019
apricots4.8751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits46.8821000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.0161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates14.0351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.11000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2.7421000 ha2019
maize55.1481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes10.1641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.0231000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.4231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry13.551000 ha2019
beans, green0.981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape10.2551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive47.1361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.2191000 ha2019
sunflower seed0.4391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops2.9321000 ha2019
sugar beet0.8051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.6171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.4071000 ha2019
apricots0.3411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.8661000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.0011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.4851000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 180 0102019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle415.6091000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes415.7161000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes0.1071000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs183.8471000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 758.3331000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats862.8651000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses55$1000 heads2019
asses and mules55$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds7 6761000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.1161000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.8111000 t2018
cheese38.5931000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals1.3t2018
crustaceans and molluscs3 009t2019
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Minerals


Albania has healthy reserves of lignite, oil and natural gas; it also produces chromite, cupreous pyrites, nickel and bitumen. Almost all of the electricity is produced by hydroelectric plants.
A thermal power plant operates in Vlorë.
The main industries are based on the processing of fish and agricultural produce (sugar refineries, timber- and tobacco-processing), and on textile manufacturing.
Still in operation are some cement factories, metal-working plants (copper), refineries (at Ballsh and Fier) and paper mills.
The country is a crucial hub for the new TAP gas pipeline, opened in October 2020, which transports gas from the Caucasus to Italy, and for the IAP gas pipeline to Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia.
A number of Italian companies have moved some of their customer support services to Albania.
To boost tourism, the country has started construction of its third international airport in Vlorë.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total9.51000 t2019
lignite9.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite1 1001000 t2019
copper236.51000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1061000 t2019
salt25$1000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin7501000 t2019
limestone5 5681000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 153.94M kWh2019
renewable electricity generation100%2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 1931000 kW2019
- thermal98$1000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation5 175.94M kWh2019
total installed capacity2 205.431000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke20$1000 t2012
ferroalloys69$1000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen104.61000 t2019
petrol40.81000 t2006
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley62.51000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.0721000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes15$M units2003
cigarettes - t0.0041000 t2006
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production21.697M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production151.823M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and accessories 483, footwear and parts thereof 467, iron and steel 217, petroleum products 198, fresh and preserved fish 93, chromite 86, electrical and electronic equipment 77, aluminium 67, fruit and vegetables 66

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures46.028% of goods exports2018
food products9.075% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy1 142M US$2020
Serbia301M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy1 407M US$2020
Turkey536M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 506M US$ -
20192 716M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 570M US$ -
20195 897M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 852M US$2019
Number of arrivals6 128 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown2 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried307.71000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers151.407per 1000 pop.2019
Computers46.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.819years2019
Graduates34 891units2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level167 104units2019
Students, secondary level256 072units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending32.543% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending9.3% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.9per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1.22per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
Tuberculosis16$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites, visitors78 552units2020
Museums, visitors49 288units2020
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.15% of GDP2008
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking80.7%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.5%2019
education2.3%2019
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