Form of Government: Republic
Area: 28 748 sq km
Population: 2 870 324 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 99.84 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 43° - 40° N; long. 19° - 22° E
Capital: Tirana=Tiranë (capital) 418 495 inhab. (2011);
Currency: lek (100 qindarka)
Human development index: 0.764 (rank: 75)
President: Ilir Meta (LSI), elected 28 April 2017, in office since 24 July 2017
Prime Minister: Edi Rama (PS), since 15 September 2013
Assembly of the Republic: seats (in July 2018): Socialist Party (PS), 74; Democratic Party (PD, centre-right), 33; Socialist Movement for Integration (LSI), 18; Republican Party (PR, right), 7; others, 8
Internet: www.instat.gov.al (Institute of Statistics)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO

Albania

Shqipëria, Republika e Shqipërisë
Useful information

International license plate code AL
International dialling code 00355
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .al

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Tirana 15.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tirana 7/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tirana 10/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tirana 1345
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tirana 98

Politics and current affairs

Political tensions followed the introduction of justice reforms, which are indispensable for future entrance to the European Union.

Geography.
Albania is bordered by Kosovo and Montenegro to the north, Kosovo and Republic of Macedonia to the north-east and Greece to the south-east. To the west lie the Adriatic Sea and the Straits of Otranto.
Much of the country is mountainous (Albanian Alps, Mount Korab, Mount Jablanica), except the coast which is flat and marshy in places. The most important rivers are the Drin, the Shkumbin, the Seman and the Vjosë. Parts of Lake Skadar, Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa are Albanian.
The low-lying coast has a Mediterranean climate, while further inland the climate is continental, with precipitation increasing towards the mountains.

Government


Having been declared an independent state in 1912, Albania was temporarily occupied by Italy between 1915 and 1920 and was gradually subdued from 1928 until it was formally annexed by Fascist Italy in 1939. The country regained its independence in 1944 and for a few decades, after the creation of the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania (1946), came under the rule of a rigid Communist regime which isolated it from the rest of the world.
In December 1990, amid an economic crisis and popular protest, the regime gave way to a process of transition towards a parliamentary democracy, marked by mass migration, political and social crises, resulting in armed revolution. The intervention of a UN military mission (April 1997) enabled the country to regain its stability and, in the same year, for political elections to be held. From that moment on, there has been a succession of centre-right and centre-left governments, which has helped normalization in the country.
Albania has been a full NATO member since 2009.
In June 2014, it formally obtained candidate country status in the process to become a member state of the European Union: accession negotiations will officially begin in June 2019. According to the new Constitution approved by a referendum on 22 November 1998, legislative power lies in the hands of the People’s Assembly of the Republic of Albania or the Kuvendi (140 elected members with a four-year mandate), which elects the President of the Republic (in office for a five-year term, who can only be re-elected once) and controls the work of the government by expressing confidence in its operations.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1.2% of GDP2016
Military personnel8 000units2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 193per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.7per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tirana=Tiranë418 495inhab.2011
Durrës113 249inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The percentage of urban population is one of the lowest in Europe. The birth rate remains one of the highest in Europe. Many Albanians are now living in Kosovo, in Greece and in the Republic of Macedonia.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.72017
Death rate7.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Albanian82.6%2011
other15.7%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim56.7%2011
other22%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Albanian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18%2017
15-29 years27%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
The country’s economy continues to grow gradually, thanks especially to internal demand and investments, particularly from foreign countries investing in the energy sector. The GDP’s growth in 2018-19 could surpass 3.5% annually. Unemployment is slightly declining, around 13-14%.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)143.42index2016
Balance of trade-2 993M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 333 345units2017
Active population, Females42%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.9%2017
Unemployment rate, Females40.2%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses351 218M LCU2015
Revenues492 601M LCU2015
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture40.3%2017
industry18.6%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture22.7%2016
industry24.1%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation274.7BN LCU2017
International reserves3 588.6M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Albeit characterised by microfunding, agriculture continues to represent a significant sector, contributing for over 22% of the country’s GDP. Olives, grape, tobacco, sugar beet, cotton, sunflower seed and timber production is relatively strong; authorities aim to reduce the illegal cultivation of marijuana. In mountainous areas, sheep farming is common; fishing, both along the coasts and inland is quite highly developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land25.4%2015
forests28.16%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley91000 t2016
cereals, total698.431000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes238.3451000 t2016
roots and tubers, total238.3451000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages56.6551000 t2016
carrots and turnips14.8581000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry24.861000 t2016
beans, green11.3481000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes205.0011000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives99.0751000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.6641000 t2016
sunflower seed1.9721000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops1.9791000 t2016
sugar beet34.671000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.5911000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples101.5321000 t2016
apricots5.1941000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits41.0511000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes1.2771000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates14.1061000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.11000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3.1041000 ha2016
maize58.5281000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9.6931000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.8461000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.4481000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry13.721000 ha2016
beans, green0.8981000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape10.0111000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive38.8891000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.2641000 ha2016
sunflower seed0.681000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops2.6161000 ha2016
sugar beet2.1751000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.5611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.231000 ha2016
apricots0.3261000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.5471000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.0851000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.4811000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 180 0102016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle496.9861000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes497.0791000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes0.0931000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs181.0241000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 971.9331000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats940.8061000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses50.3171000 heads2016
asses and mules53.8071000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds10 0181000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.11000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.51000 t2014
cheese20.851000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals1.7t2016
crustaceans and molluscs2 595t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.

Albania has healthy reserves of lignite, oil and natural gas; it also produces chromite, cupreous pyrites, nickel and bitumen. Much of the electricity is produced by hydroelectric plants, the largest of which is at Fierza (in the district of Kukës). A thermal power plant operates in Vlorë.
The main industries are based on the processing of agricultural produce (sugar refineries, timber- and tobacco-processing) and fabric-processing.
There are fish-processing plants at Vlorë.
Still in operation are some cement factories, metal-working factories (copper), refineries, paper mills, a fertilizer producing plant at Laç and a steelworks at Elbasan.
Plans for the TAP gas pipeline are at an advanced stage; it is expected to pipe gas from the Caucasus, through Greece and Albania, to Italy. A new gas pipeline should link Albania with Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. The energy sector attracts major foreign direct investments (gas pipelines, hydroelectric plants). A number of Italian companies have moved some of their customer support services to Albania. Tourism is on the increase.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total0.11000 t2015
lignite0.11000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite639.91000 t2015
copper140.41000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum851000 t2016
salt251000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin1 1611000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 866M kWh2015
renewable electricity generation100%2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 7981000 kW2015
- thermal981000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation5 866M kWh2015
total installed capacity1 8971000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke201000 t2012
ferroalloys381000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen831000 t2015
petrol40.81000 t2006
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley591000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.081000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes15M units2003
cigarettes - t0.0041000 t2006
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 2101000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production24.8M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production101.1M US$2013
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and accessories 483, footwear and parts thereof 467, iron and steel 217, petroleum products 198, fresh and preserved fish 93, chromite 86, electrical and electronic equipment 77, aluminium 67, fruit and vegetables 66

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures66.313% of goods exports2016
fuels11.178% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy1 232M US$2017
Serbia176M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy1 512M US$2017
Germany428M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20172 301.371M US$ -
20161 962.114M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20175 293.992M US$ -
20164 669.214M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 338M US$2016
Number of arrivals4 070 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown2 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried103.21000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers100.206per 1000 pop.2017
Computers46.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.4years2016
Graduates31 530units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level9 867units2016
Teachers, secondary level24 082units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending32.7% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending6.4% of GDP2003
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.9per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians1.3per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2016
Tuberculosis16per 100 000 pop.2016
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums9units2015
Museums, visitors131 808units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.15% of GDP2008
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking77.42%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.2%2006-07
education1.7%2006-07
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