Form of Government: Republic
Area: 28 748 sq km
Population: 2 862 427 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 99.57 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 43° - 40° N; long. 19° - 22° E
Capital: Tirana=Tiranë (capital) 475 577 inhab. (2018);
Currency: lek (100 qindarka)
Human development index: 0.785 (rank: 68)
President: Ilir Meta (LSI), elected 28 April 2017, in office since 24 July 2017
Prime Minister: Edi Rama (PS), since 15 September 2013
Assembly of the Republic: seats (July 2018 update): Socialist Party (PS), 74; Democratic Party (PD, centre-right), 33; Socialist Movement for Integration (LSI), 18; Republican Party (PR, right), 7; others, 8
Internet: www.instat.gov.al (Institute of Statistics)
Member of CEFTA, Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OAS observer, OIC, OSCE, UN, WTO

Albania

Shqipëria, Republika e Shqipërisë
Useful information

International license plate code AL
International dialling code 00355
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .al

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Tirana 15.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tirana 7/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tirana 10/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tirana 1345
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tirana 98

Politics and current affairs

Edi Rama’s government challenged protests led by the opposition, who have accused him of interfering in the 2017 elections. President Meta postponed local elections in June, but the majority ignored the decree. Voting took place on June 30, 2019, but was boycotted by the opposition parties amidst growing tensions.

Geography.
Albania is bordered by Kosovo and Montenegro to the north, Kosovo and North Macedonia to the north-east and Greece to the south-east. To the west lie the Adriatic Sea and the Straits of Otranto.
Much of the country is mountainous (Albanian Alps, Mount Korab, Mount Jablanica), except the coast which is flat and marshy in places. The most important rivers are the Drin, the Shkumbin, the Seman and the Vjosë. Parts of Lake Skadar, Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa are Albanian.
The low-lying coast has a Mediterranean climate, while further inland the climate is continental, with precipitation increasing towards the mountains.

Government


Having been declared an independent state in 1912, Albania was temporarily occupied by Italy between 1915 and 1920 and was gradually subdued from 1928 until it was formally annexed by Fascist Italy in 1939. The country regained its independence in 1944 and for a few decades, after the creation of the Socialist People’s Republic of Albania (1946), came under the rule of a rigid Communist regime which isolated it from the rest of the world.
In December 1990, amid an economic crisis and popular protest, the regime gave way to a process of transition towards a parliamentary democracy, marked by mass migration, political and social crises, resulting in armed revolution. The intervention of a UN military mission (April 1997) enabled the country to regain its stability and, in the same year, for political elections to be held. From that moment on, the change in governments had helped aid normalization in the country, up until the tensions registered in recent years.
Albania has been a full NATO member since 2009.
In June 2014, it formally obtained candidate country status in the process to become a member state of the European Union: the opening of accession negotiations is subject to a European decision by October 2019.
According to the new Constitution approved by a referendum on 22 November 1998, legislative power lies in the hands of the People’s Assembly of the Republic of Albania or the Kuvendi (140 elected members with a four-year mandate), which elects the President of the Republic (in office for a five-year term, who can only be re-elected once) and controls the work of the government by expressing confidence in its operations.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1.2% of GDP2017
Military personnel8 000units2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 200.8per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides1.8per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tirana=Tiranë475 577inhab.2018
Durrës113 249inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The percentage of urban population is one of the lowest in Europe. The birth rate remains one of the highest in Europe. Many Albanians are now living in Kosovo, in Greece and in the Republic of North Macedonia.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.12018
Death rate7.62018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Albanian82.6%2011
other15.7%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim56.7%2011
other22%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Albanian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years17.8%2018
15-29 years26.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth should stop at +3.8% in 2019. Unemployment was at 13.9% in 2018, consistent with 2017.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)143.42index2016
Balance of trade-3 065.4M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 336 470units2018
Active population, Females42%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females39.7%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses476 147M LCU2018
Revenues449 909M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture38%2018
industry19.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture21%2018
industry24.3%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation286.2BN LCU2018
International reserves3 893.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture continues to represent a significant sector.
Olives, grape, tobacco, sugar beet, cotton, sunflower seed and timber production is relatively strong; authorities aim to reduce the illegal cultivation of marijuana.
In mountainous areas, sheep farming is common; fishing, both along the coasts and inland is quite highly developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land25.4%2015
forests28.16%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley9.0351000 t2017
cereals, total701.7341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes249.8041000 t2017
roots and tubers, total249.8041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages52.61000 t2017
carrots and turnips11.9741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry21.21000 t2017
beans, green10.2741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes202.9481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives107.831000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.51000 t2017
sunflower seed1.1171000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops2.0681000 t2017
sugar beet34.0691000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.5421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples96.3381000 t2017
apricots5.041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits41.0331000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes0.0121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates12.9781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.11000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3.0651000 ha2017
maize58.061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9.9481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.8131000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.3781000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry13.0411000 ha2017
beans, green0.8471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape10.6951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive45.4261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soybeans0.2271000 ha2017
sunflower seed0.5021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops2.7161000 ha2017
sugar beet2.2851000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.5191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.3461000 ha2017
apricots0.3261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.5961000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates0.481000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 180 0102017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle475.2151000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes475.3021000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes0.0871000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs180.0871000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 925.5111000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats933.1211000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses49.0041000 heads2017
asses and mules54.5041000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds10 1641000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.11000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.51000 t2014
cheese20.851000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals1.2t2017
crustaceans and molluscs2 857t2017
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Minerals


Albania has healthy reserves of lignite, oil and natural gas; it also produces chromite, cupreous pyrites, nickel and bitumen.
Much of the electricity is produced by hydroelectric plants. A thermal power plant operates in Vlorë.
The main industries are based on the processing of fish and agricultural produce (sugar refineries, timber- and tobacco-processing), and on textile manufacturing.
Still in operation are some cement factories, metal-working plants (copper), refineries and paper mills. The country is a crucial hub for the TAP gas pipeline project, which will transport gas from the Caucasus to Italy, and for the new IAP gas pipeline project to the Balkans.
The energy sector attracts major foreign direct investments (gas pipelines, hydroelectric plants). A number of Italian companies have moved some of their customer support services to Albania. Tourism is on the increase.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total5.81000 t2016
lignite5.81000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite765.21000 t2016
copper140.41000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum131.91000 t2016
salt251000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin8271000 t2016
limestone7 2881000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro7 136M kWh2016
renewable electricity generation100%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 0101000 kW2016
- thermal981000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation7 138M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 1091000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke201000 t2012
ferroalloys44.61000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen841000 t2016
petrol40.81000 t2006
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley591000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.081000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes15M units2003
cigarettes - t0.0041000 t2006
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 0201000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production37.3M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production96.3M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and accessories 483, footwear and parts thereof 467, iron and steel 217, petroleum products 198, fresh and preserved fish 93, chromite 86, electrical and electronic equipment 77, aluminium 67, fruit and vegetables 66

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures41.567% of goods exports2018
food products9.042% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy1 381M US$2018
Serbia325M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy1 624M US$2018
Turkey502M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20182 876M US$ -
20172 301M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 941M US$ -
20175 294M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 472M US$2017
Number of arrivals4 643 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown2 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried103.21000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers100.206per 1000 pop.2017
Computers46.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.2years2017
Graduates34 331units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level9 743units2017
Teachers, secondary level24 165units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending32.7% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending6.4% of GDP2003
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.9per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians1.3per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Tuberculosis20per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums9units2015
Museums, visitors311 940units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.15% of GDP2008
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking77.42%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.2%2006-07
education1.7%2006-07
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