Form of Government: Parliamentary republic
Area: 302 073 sq km
Population: 59 257 566 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 196.17 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 47° - 35° N; long. 6° - 18° E
Capital: Rome=Roma (capital) 2 783 809 inhab. (2020);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.892 (rank: 29)
President of the Republic: Sergio Mattarella, elected on 31 January 2015, in office since 3 February 2015
Prime Minister (President of the Council of Ministers): Mario Draghi (independent), since 13 February 2021
Parliament: seats (August 2021 update): Chamber of Deputies: M5S (Five Star MoVement), 160; League (right-wing), 132; PD (Democratic Party), 93; FI (Forza Italia, centre-right), 77; FdI (Brothers of Italy, right-wing), 37; IV (Italia Viva, centre-left), 28; Coraggio Italia, 24; LeU (Free and Equal, left-wing), 12; Mixed Group, 65; vacant, 2. Senate: M5S (Five Star MoVement), 74; League (right-wing), 64; FI (Forza Italia, centre-right), 50; PD (Democratic Party), 38; FdI (Brothers of Italy), 21; IV–PSI (Italia Viva–Socialist Party, centre-left), 17; For the Autonomies (centre-left, regionalist), 8; Mixed Group, 47; others, 2
Internet: (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO


Italia, Repubblica Italiana
Useful information

International license plate code I
International dialling code 0039
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .it

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Rome 15.6; Florence 14.6; Genova 15.6; Milano 12.5; Naples 15.5; Palermo 18.6; Venice 12.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Rome 7.5/24.5; Florence 6/24; Genova 8/24; Milano 1.5/23.5; Naples 8/23.5; Palermo 12.5/25.5; Venice 2.5/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Rome 9/4; Florence 8.5/3; Genova 8/3.5; Milano 8/2; Naples 9/3; Palermo 10/4; Venice 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Rome 830; Florence 910; Genova 1075; Milano 995; Naples 1015; Palermo 604; Venice 840
Days of rainfall (annual average) Rome 81; Florence 92; Genova 80; Milano 89; Naples 132; Palermo 75; Venice 86

Politics and current affairs

After the hard lockdown imposed throughout the spring of 2020, the summer saw a tangible improvement in terms of infection rates, and an almost complete shelving of restrictions. From late July onwards, however, cases of infection steadily began to rise again, prompting the government to adopt new measures in the autumn, which involved restrictions of varying severity. The situation was at its most intense between October 2020 and June 2021; various services and cultural activities were obliged to close as infection rates ran rampant. The vaccination campaign got underway on 27 December 2020: as of August 31, around 70% of the over-12 population had been fully vaccinated, and 80% received their first dose.
On 13 January 2021, the resignation of two ministers led to the fall of Giuseppe Conte’s government and Conte himself resigned on 26 January. The President of the Republic appointed Mario Draghi, former president of the European Central Bank, to form a new government: Draghi assumed the office of Prime Minister on 13 February 2021. The new executive immediately strove to implement the vaccination campaign and to finalize the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP). In summer 2021, the “green pass” became mandatory to access specific places and transportation. The main directives of the NRRP presented to the European Commission concern green transition, digital transition, and social and economic resilience.
Italy withdrew its military contingent from Afghanistan, as part of the general withdrawal of NATO troops. Kābul fell into Taliban hands on 15 August 2021, when efforts were made to accelerate the return of Italian troops, along with part of their Afghan support (interpreters, translators, etc.) and their families, to whom Italy has offered asylum.
In July and August, fires fomented by strong winds and high temperatures devastated large areas of the country, especially in the southern regions, in Sardinia and Sicily, leading to serious environmental and economic damage.

Italy only has borders from the north-west to the north-east: France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. San Marino and the Vatican are also within the landmass. It also includes an exclave in Switzerland: Campione d’Italia. The peninsula is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, divided into the Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea and Adriatic Sea. The two largest islands in the Mediterranean are Italian: Sardinia, separated from Corsica (France) by the Strait of Bonifacio, and Sicily, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicilian Channel and Ionian Sea. Minor islands include the Tuscan Archipelago, the Pontine Islands off the coast of Lazio, Capri, Ischia and Procida in the Bay of Naples, the Aeolians (or Lipari) to the north and the Aegadians to the west of Sicily, Pantelleria in the Sicilian Channel, the Tremiti Islands in the Adriatic and the Pelagies off the Tunisian coast.
The peninsula is dominated by two mountain ranges: the Alps, to the north, and the Apennines throughout the peninsula. Between the foothills of the Alps and the Northern Apennines lies the Po Valley, crossed by the river Po. In the northern Adriatic, the coasts are low and there are numerous lagoons; in the rest of the country the coasts are rocky or fringed with short stretches of sandy beach. Hills and mountains cover much of Sicily, with the volcano of Mount Etna that dominates the Catania Plain in the east. Sardinia is largely mountainous and most of the coast has rugged cliffs.
The climate is affected by the mountain ranges of the Alps, the Apennines and the highlands of the larger islands, while the sea influences the climate along coastal stretches.


The Italian State is the result of a unification process that began in 1848 with the Wars of Independence. These drew to a close in 1919, at the end of the Great War, with the annexation of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (South Tyrol), Trieste and Istria. The peace agreement after the end of the Second World War deprived Italy of Istria and part of Venezia-Giulia. An institutional referendum held on 2 June 1946 put an end to the monarchy and the rule of the House of Savoy.
The Constitution, passed on 27 December 1947, defines the structure and operation of the State, attributing legislative power, together with control of the guidance and activities of the executive, to Parliament. On 29 September, 1999, Italians living abroad gained the right to vote.
Parliament comprises two chambers (the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic), both of which are elected directly by universal suffrage for five years. The constitutional referendum was held on 20-21 September 2020, with a majority voting that the number of elective seats in the Chamber of Deputies be reduced from 630 to 400 and in the Senate from 315 to 200, to be enshrined in forthcoming legislation. The President of the Republic, who is “head of state and represents national unity”, is elected by Parliament for five-year terms and may be re-elected. The Government comprises the President of the Council (as the Prime Minister is known), who is appointed by the President of the Republic, and his ministers, who form the Council of Ministers. A new Government must be approved by gaining a majority vote in both Chambers.
The territory of the Italian Republic is divided in terms of administration into regions, metropolitan cities, provinces and municipalities. There are 20 regions, 15 of which are under ordinary statutes and 5 under special statutes (Valle d’Aosta/Vallée d’Aoste, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sicily and Sardinia). The provinces and municipalities have administrative and financial autonomy. The provinces of Trento and Bolzano/Bozen also have legislative autonomy. Effective 1 January 2015, 14 “metropolitan cities” were instituted (Rome Capital, Turin, Milan, Venice, Genoa, Bologna, Florence, Bari, Naples, Reggio di Calabria, Palermo, Catania, Messina, Cagliari), which have absorbed the respective provinces, benefitting from special powers and administrative autonomy.

Since 2005, when compulsory military service was abolished, the armed forces have been a professional service, and open to men and women. The Italian armed forces comprise the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Carabinieri (which absorbed the State Forestry Corps in 2016), and the Financial Guards (reporting to the Ministry of Economy and Finance). The Italian State Police report to the Ministry of the Interior.
As of July 2021, 6582 Italian military were involved in 37 international operations: large contingents of troops operate in Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon and in the Balkans. The presence in Africa includes contingents in Libya, Niger, Djibouti and Somalia. In the Mediterranean, Italy heads up the new European operation EUNAVFOR Med Irini, aimed at enforcing the arms embargo towards Libya. Another 7800 soldiers have been deployed across Italy as part of the “Strade Sicure” (Secure Streets) operation. The Italian territory is home to several military sites (bases, radar centres, depots and firing grounds) headed up by NATO armed forces or allies (mainly US).

The judicial administration is divided into offices of Justices of the Peace, courts and public prosecutors’ offices, juvenile courts, surveillance courts, courts of appeal and Public Prosecutors’ offices at courts of appeal, the Court of Cassation and Public Prosecutor’s offices at the Court of Cassation, and the Higher Court of the Public Waters.

Air force24.6%2021
Crimes4 722.8per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.6per 100 000 pop.2018

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Rome=Roma2 783 809inhab.2020
Milan=Milano1 397 715inhab.2020
LOMBARDY=LOMBARDIA9 966 992ab.2020
LAZIO5 720 796ab.2020


Population by age and gender (% - 2020)

Italy has one of the highest population densities in Europe, but population distribution across the country is uneven on account of environmental factors and the different ways in which towns and cities have developed.
Italy has one of the highest life expectancy rates in the world. For years immigration has been the main factor in population growth. The permanent presence of foreign residents is mainly concentrated in north and central Italy. The largest foreign communities are from Romania, Albania, Morocco, China and Ukraine.

Demographic statistics
Birth rate6.82020
Death rate12.62020
Foreigners, total5 013 215units2020
Romanians1 137 728units2020
Ethnic groups

atheist and agnostic15.3%2020

Population by selected age groups
0-14 years13.5%2020
15-29 years14.9%2020



Economic situation.
The Italian economy suffered badly as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, shrinking by 8.9% in 2020: a fall that far exceeded the Eurozone average of -6.6%. GDP was driven downward by the three-pronged collapse in family expenditure, gross fixed capital formation, and the exportation of goods and services. The only positive contribution to GDP was the spending made by public administrations, which grew as a result of the support measures introduced to prop up businesses and private citizens hit by the effects of recession. This unenviable economic picture has also affected the employment market, which has half a million fewer jobs than it did prior to the pandemic. That said, unemployment has decreased slightly, nursed by the inactivity rate.
The increase in national debt and the fall of GDP saw the debt-GDP ratio grow to 155.6%, well beyond the EU average. Economic estimates in 2021 have been influenced by the smooth progress in the vaccination campaign and the relaxation of most restrictive measures at the end of spring, both of which have helped the Italian economy regain lost ground. The European Commission predicts a 5% growth in GDP in 2021 and 4.4% in 2022.

Economy - General data
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)91.55index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)97.63index2019
Economy - Employment
Active population25 214 224units2020
Active population, Females42.5%2020
Economy - Unemployment
Unemployment rate9.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.3%2020
Economy - State budget
Expenses619 494M LCU2020
Revenues466 041M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
GDP by economic activity
Financial data
Currency in circulation228.967BN LCU2020
International reserves210 687.331M US$2020


Primary sector
Yields from cereal crops are moderate high, with cereals being grown mainly in the south (durum wheat) and in the Po Valley. About 70% of Italian maize is grown in Piedmont, Lombardy and Veneto. Rice is mainly grown in the provinces of Novara, Vercelli and Pavia. The most important industrial crop is sugar beet (Po Valley).
Tomatoes are mostly cultivated in Campania, Sicily, Apulia and Emilia-Romagna. Other main fruit and vegetables include artichokes, melons, watermelons, onions and cauliflowers. Flower growing is extensive, especially in Liguria and Tuscany. Scattered throughout the peninsula, grapevines enjoy prestige in Piedmont, Veneto and Tuscany. Italy alternates with France for first place in terms of global wine-making and vies with Spain for the production of olive oil (Apulia and Calabria excel in terms of quantity, but Tuscany and Liguria offer the finest of oils). Citrus fruits (oranges and lemons) are grown mainly in Sicily, Calabria and Campania. Apples, pears, peaches, almonds, cherries and plums are grown extensively in some regions.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming is practised mainly in the Po Valley, where beef and dairy cattle predominate, along with poultry and pigs. Derivative products, such as cured meats and cheeses are justly famous.
Apart from in the Adriatic Sea and the Sicilian Channel, fishing in the seas off the Italian coast is somewhat limited. The major fishing-ports are Chioggia, Ancona, San Benedetto del Tronto, Manfredonia, Molfetta, Palermo, Trapani and Mazara del Vallo. The total catch isn’t sufficient to meet the demand of the national market, which is forced to import large amounts. Fish farming has developed considerably, both in freshwater (trout and sturgeon) and at sea (bass, grey mullet and gilthead). The Valli di Comacchio are known for their eels.

Land use
arable land30.814%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
barley1 099.11000 t2020
cereals, total16 869.81000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
potatoes1 463.51000 t2020
roots and tubers, total1 478.31000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
artichokes376.11000 t2020
asparagus48.71000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Pulses
beans, dry13.41000 t2020
beans, green165.21000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Grape
grapes8 295.11000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Olive
olives2 502.81000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
rapeseed48.71000 t2020
sesame seed0.0011000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
pyrethrum0.3051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
sugar beet2 040.81000 t2020
tobacco37.81000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Flax
linseed1.21000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
hemp tow waste4.71000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Fruits
apples1 481.51000 t2020
apricots179.11000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Nuts
almonds84.71000 t2020
hazelnuts144.61000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
citrus fruits2 567.91000 t2020
citrus fruits, nes32.61000 t2020
Agriculture - products - Others
mushrooms70.861000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
barley276.41000 ha2020
maize981.91000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
potatoes47.31000 ha2020
sweet potatoes0.41000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
artichokes38.21000 ha2020
cabbages21.31000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
beans, dry5.51000 ha2020
beans, green17.21000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
grape7291000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
olive1 160.21000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
rapeseed16.81000 ha2020
sesame seed0.0021000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
sugar beet27.31000 ha2020
tobacco13.41000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
linseed0.51000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
hemp tow waste0.61000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
apples37.81000 ha2020
apricots19$1000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
almonds54.41000 ha2020
hazelnuts88.51000 ha2020
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
citrus fruits122.31000 ha2020
citrus fruits, nes1.81000 ha2020


timber18 366 7642019
Livestock - Cattle
cattle6 377.231000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes6 779.521000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
buffaloes402.291000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
pigs8 510.271000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
sheep7 000.881000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
goats1 058.721000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
asses20.7391000 heads2018
asses and mules27.4891000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
birds175 2941000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
honey9.51000 t2018
Livestock - Silk farming
silk, raw0.0121000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
butter90.431000 t2018
cheese1 213.5061000 t2018
crustaceans and molluscs154 512.8t2019


Mineral resources - Energy minerals
coal17$1000 t2019
coal, total17$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
iron ore3.71000 t2020
lead0.81000 t2012
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
asphalt, natural1 531.11000 t2019
barite3.51000 t2014
Mineral resources - Rocks
alabaster10 722.71000 t2020
diatomite25$1000 t2016


Electric energy - Generated
- thermal173 890M kWh2020
- hydro48 951.8M kWh2020
Electric energy - Installed capacity
- thermal62 653.91000 kW2020
- other renew.33 3741000 kW2020
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
total net generation271 647.9M kWh2020
total installed capacity119 108.81000 kW2020


Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
aluminium1 433.51000 t2020
aluminium, secondary1 0001000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
bikes3 045 000no.2020
cars451 826no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
air conditioners1 258 033no.2020
computers250 975no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
bitumen3 062.31000 t2020
petrol18 644.11000 t2020
Industry - Chemicals
ammonia419.31000 t2020
artificial tow6.81000 t2004
Industry - Textiles
carpets1 442.21000 m²2020
cotton fabrics236.8M m²2020
Industry - Clothing and footwear
footwear130 700 000pairs2020
Industry - Food and beverages
beer of barley1 5701000 t2018
coconut oil0.3851000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
cigarettes2 629.7M units2016
cigars and cigarettes2 629.7M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
chemical pulp19.5121000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp333.7761000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
cement19 818.31000 t2020
sheet glass46 817.21000 m²2020
Industry - Various
chemicals production28 783.834M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production34 540.029M US$2018


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Italy is one of the leading countries in world trade, with 2.9% of the overall export of goods and 2.4% in imports (2020). The main markets for Italian exports are EU countries (especially Germany and France) and the USA. Oil and natural gas, vehicles, machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, chemical and pharmaceutical products come top on the list of imported goods.

Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
machinery 99 475, iron and steel 30 700, electrical and electronic equipment 30 117, pharmaceuticals 25 687, vehicles and parts thereof 25 680, apparel and accessories 21 331, plastics 20 561, cars 18 021, petroleum products 14 973, chemicals 14 144, furniture and accessories 13 655, footwear 11 315, leather goods 9 177, jewels and precious stones 8 423, technical and electro-medical appliances 8 348, glass and ceramic products 8 025, paper and paperboard 7 080, wine 6 762, aluminium 6 401, fruit and vegetables 5 896, cosmetics and perfumes 5 513, pasta and bakery products 5 218, rubber articles 4 856, ships and boats 4 796, aircraft and parts thereof 4 562, raw hides & skins 4 420, spectacles/goggles and the like 4 090

Finance and banking.
In 2020, the banking sector consisted of 59 banking groups and 90 individual banks, in addition to 81 branches of foreign banks. The process of credit union reform concluded in 2019, which led to a rationalization of banking groups. In April 2021, Euronext completed its acquisition of the Milan Stock Exchange (Borsa Italiana) from the London Stock Exchange Group in a deal worth 4.4 billion euros.

Composition of goods exports
manufactures81.703% of goods exports2019
food products9.363% of goods exports2019
Commercio Estero - Esportazioni
Germany55 685M euro2020
France44 660M euro2020
Commercio Estero - Importazioni
Germany60 317M euro2020
China32 144M euro2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
Germany63 703M US$2020
France51 091M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
Germany68 913M US$2020
China36 726M US$2020
Merchandise Export
2020496 108M US$ -
2019537 718M US$ -
Merchandise Import
2020422 879M US$ -
2019475 006M US$ -


Before the pandemic, Italy was ranked among the most preferred tourist destinations in the world, with almost 65 million of international arrivals in 2019. Its famous cities of art (Rome, Venice, Florence, Naples and many other smaller places) are the most popular destinations. Its many other attractions include: the seaside resorts along the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic coasts, ski resorts and summer Alpine walking resorts, its lakes, spas, archaeological sites and nature reserves and parks. Its visitors come mainly from Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the USA. However, the sector was severely hit by the 2020 health crisis, despite the general summer reopening. Italy confirms its leadership as the nation with the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (58).

International Tourism
Expenditures38 024M US$2019
Number of arrivals64 513 000units2019


The communications network is highly developed, although this is not true for all parts of the country. The railways network has been upgraded quite significantly, though not without problems. The rolling stock is being modernized and a high-speed, high-capacity train network is in the process of being built. On account of the geography of the country, sea transport plays a key role in trade with countries outside Italy.

Media and telecommunication.
In recent years, the telecommunications sector has undergone constant change as a result of the deregulation of the market and the evolution of TC technology, which has enabled major synergies between the telephone infrastructure and computers, causing mobile phone services to be established once and for all as well as Internet access. With the move to digital terrestrial television, the number of channels has increased, but the market stays divided between three groups: two on the terrestrial network (RAI, which is the Italian state television network, and Mediaset, offering additional digital channels for a fee) and one on the satellite network (Sky, for a fee), with other marginal companies.

Communication - Transport
Civil aviation, km flown406 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried27 260.31000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
Broadband subscribers288.53per 1000 pop.2019
Computers366.6per 1000 pop.2005

Social and welfare

Education, culture & research.
School is compulsory for ten years in all. Completion is expected by the age of 18 years with upper secondary school qualifications or a vocational qualification that takes at least three years to gain. Pre-school education is not compulsory. Primary education lasts for 5 years and is followed by the first stage of secondary teaching for 3 years. Upper secondary schools are divided as art schools, schools with an emphasis on humanities, those with an emphasis on science, language schools, music and dance conservatories and schools focusing on life science. Vocation and technical training is divided into technical and vocational training schools.
The former is separated into two sectors, economic and technological, whereas the latter into vocational schools for the service sector and vocational schools for the industry and handicraft sectors. University courses are organized around two cycles. The first, which lasts for three years, leads to a first-level (bachelors) degree; the second, which lasts for two years, enables students to gain a specialist degree (masters).

Social security and health.
Welfare, healthcare and assistance are the three main areas around which the publicly-funded Italian social security system is organized, providing financial aid as well as social services. During recent years, expenditure has increasingly been allocated for social welfare schemes to support the disabled, the elderly, war veterans, the unemployed, victims of accidents at work, and people on maternity and sick leave.
There has been a series of various reforms of the pension system to ensure that the figures balance out in the midterm, also taking into account the increased life expectancy of the population, by gradually raising the retirement age and the gradual equalization of men and women.

Social statistics - Education
Expected years of schooling16.175years2018
Gradautes, percentage19.632%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
Students, primary level2 870 763units2018
Students, secondary level4 630 438units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
Social protection spending43.498% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending28.195% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
Hospital beds3.14per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians4.02per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
HIV0.2% of adults2019
HIV, total0.4%2001
Museums4 880units2019
Museums, visitors129 946 967units2019
Research and development spending1.45% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
clothing, footwear5.4%2020