Form of Government: Parliamentary republic
Area: 302 073 sq km
Population: 59 257 566 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 196.17 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 47° - 35° N; long. 6° - 18° E
Capital: Rome=Roma (capital) 2 783 809 inhab. (2020);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.892 (rank: 29)
President of the Republic: Sergio Mattarella, elected on 31 January 2015, in office since 3 February 2015
Prime Minister (President of the Council of Ministers): Mario Draghi (independent), since 13 February 2021
Parliament: seats (August 2021 update): Chamber of Deputies: M5S (Five Star MoVement), 160; League (right-wing), 132; PD (Democratic Party), 93; FI (Forza Italia, centre-right), 77; FdI (Brothers of Italy, right-wing), 37; IV (Italia Viva, centre-left), 28; Coraggio Italia, 24; LeU (Free and Equal, left-wing), 12; Mixed Group, 65; vacant, 2. Senate: M5S (Five Star MoVement), 74; League (right-wing), 64; FI (Forza Italia, centre-right), 50; PD (Democratic Party), 38; FdI (Brothers of Italy), 21; IV–PSI (Italia Viva–Socialist Party, centre-left), 17; For the Autonomies (centre-left, regionalist), 8; Mixed Group, 47; others, 2
Internet: www.istat.it (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO
International license plate code I
International dialling code 0039
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .it
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October
Annual average temperature (°C) Rome 15.6; Florence 14.6; Genova 15.6; Milano 12.5; Naples 15.5; Palermo 18.6; Venice 12.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Rome 7.5/24.5; Florence 6/24; Genova 8/24; Milano 1.5/23.5; Naples 8/23.5; Palermo 12.5/25.5; Venice 2.5/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Rome 9/4; Florence 8.5/3; Genova 8/3.5; Milano 8/2; Naples 9/3; Palermo 10/4; Venice 8/2
Annual average precipitation (mm) Rome 830; Florence 910; Genova 1075; Milano 995; Naples 1015; Palermo 604; Venice 840
Days of rainfall (annual average) Rome 81; Florence 92; Genova 80; Milano 89; Naples 132; Palermo 75; Venice 86
Politics and current affairs
After the hard lockdown imposed throughout the spring of 2020, the summer saw a tangible improvement in terms of infection rates, and an almost complete shelving of restrictions. From late July onwards, however, cases of infection steadily began to rise again, prompting the government to adopt new measures in the autumn, which involved restrictions of varying severity. The situation was at its most intense between October 2020 and June 2021; various services and cultural activities were obliged to close as infection rates ran rampant. The vaccination campaign got underway on 27 December 2020: as of August 31, around 70% of the over-12 population had been fully vaccinated, and 80% received their first dose.
On 13 January 2021, the resignation of two ministers led to the fall of Giuseppe Conte’s government and Conte himself resigned on 26 January. The President of the Republic appointed Mario Draghi, former president of the European Central Bank, to form a new government: Draghi assumed the office of Prime Minister on 13 February 2021. The new executive immediately strove to implement the vaccination campaign and to finalize the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP). In summer 2021, the “green pass” became mandatory to access specific places and transportation. The main directives of the NRRP presented to the European Commission concern green transition, digital transition, and social and economic resilience.
Italy withdrew its military contingent from Afghanistan, as part of the general withdrawal of NATO troops. Kābul fell into Taliban hands on 15 August 2021, when efforts were made to accelerate the return of Italian troops, along with part of their Afghan support (interpreters, translators, etc.) and their families, to whom Italy has offered asylum.
In July and August, fires fomented by strong winds and high temperatures devastated large areas of the country, especially in the southern regions, in Sardinia and Sicily, leading to serious environmental and economic damage.
Italy only has borders from the north-west to the north-east: France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. San Marino and the Vatican are also within the landmass. It also includes an exclave in Switzerland: Campione d’Italia. The peninsula is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, divided into the Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea and Adriatic Sea. The two largest islands in the Mediterranean are Italian: Sardinia, separated from Corsica (France) by the Strait of Bonifacio, and Sicily, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicilian Channel and Ionian Sea. Minor islands include the Tuscan Archipelago, the Pontine Islands off the coast of Lazio, Capri, Ischia and Procida in the Bay of Naples, the Aeolians (or Lipari) to the north and the Aegadians to the west of Sicily, Pantelleria in the Sicilian Channel, the Tremiti Islands in the Adriatic and the Pelagies off the Tunisian coast.
The peninsula is dominated by two mountain ranges: the Alps, to the north, and the Apennines throughout the peninsula. Between the foothills of the Alps and the Northern Apennines lies the Po Valley, crossed by the river Po. In the northern Adriatic, the coasts are low and there are numerous lagoons; in the rest of the country the coasts are rocky or fringed with short stretches of sandy beach. Hills and mountains cover much of Sicily, with the volcano of Mount Etna that dominates the Catania Plain in the east. Sardinia is largely mountainous and most of the coast has rugged cliffs.
The climate is affected by the mountain ranges of the Alps, the Apennines and the highlands of the larger islands, while the sea influences the climate along coastal stretches.
The Italian State is the result of a unification process that began in 1848 with the Wars of Independence. These drew to a close in 1919, at the end of the Great War, with the annexation of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (South Tyrol), Trieste and Istria. The peace agreement after the end of the Second World War deprived Italy of Istria and part of Venezia-Giulia. An institutional referendum held on 2 June 1946 put an end to the monarchy and the rule of the House of Savoy.
The Constitution, passed on 27 December 1947, defines the structure and operation of the State, attributing legislative power, together with control of the guidance and activities of the executive, to Parliament. On 29 September, 1999, Italians living abroad gained the right to vote.
Parliament comprises two chambers (the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic), both of which are elected directly by universal suffrage for five years. The constitutional referendum was held on 20-21 September 2020, with a majority voting that the number of elective seats in the Chamber of Deputies be reduced from 630 to 400 and in the Senate from 315 to 200, to be enshrined in forthcoming legislation. The President of the Republic, who is “head of state and represents national unity”, is elected by Parliament for five-year terms and may be re-elected. The Government comprises the President of the Council (as the Prime Minister is known), who is appointed by the President of the Republic, and his ministers, who form the Council of Ministers. A new Government must be approved by gaining a majority vote in both Chambers.
The territory of the Italian Republic is divided in terms of administration into regions, metropolitan cities, provinces and municipalities. There are 20 regions, 15 of which are under ordinary statutes and 5 under special statutes (Valle d’Aosta/Vallée d’Aoste, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sicily and Sardinia). The provinces and municipalities have administrative and financial autonomy. The provinces of Trento and Bolzano/Bozen also have legislative autonomy. Effective 1 January 2015, 14 “metropolitan cities” were instituted (Rome Capital, Turin, Milan, Venice, Genoa, Bologna, Florence, Bari, Naples, Reggio di Calabria, Palermo, Catania, Messina, Cagliari), which have absorbed the respective provinces, benefitting from special powers and administrative autonomy.
Since 2005, when compulsory military service was abolished, the armed forces have been a professional service, and open to men and women. The Italian armed forces comprise the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Carabinieri (which absorbed the State Forestry Corps in 2016), and the Financial Guards (reporting to the Ministry of Economy and Finance). The Italian State Police report to the Ministry of the Interior.
As of July 2021, 6582 Italian military were involved in 37 international operations: large contingents of troops operate in Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon and in the Balkans. The presence in Africa includes contingents in Libya, Niger, Djibouti and Somalia. In the Mediterranean, Italy heads up the new European operation EUNAVFOR Med Irini, aimed at enforcing the arms embargo towards Libya. Another 7800 soldiers have been deployed across Italy as part of the “Strade Sicure” (Secure Streets) operation. The Italian territory is home to several military sites (bases, radar centres, depots and firing grounds) headed up by NATO armed forces or allies (mainly US).
The judicial administration is divided into offices of Justices of the Peace, courts and public prosecutors’ offices, juvenile courts, surveillance courts, courts of appeal and Public Prosecutors’ offices at courts of appeal, the Court of Cassation and Public Prosecutor’s offices at the Court of Cassation, and the Higher Court of the Public Waters.
|Rome=Roma||2 783 809||inhab.||2020|
|Milan=Milano||1 397 715||inhab.||2020|
|LOMBARDY=LOMBARDIA||9 966 992||ab.||2020|
|LAZIO||5 720 796||ab.||2020|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2020)|
Italy has one of the highest population densities in Europe, but population distribution across the country is uneven on account of environmental factors and the different ways in which towns and cities have developed.
Italy has one of the highest life expectancy rates in the world. For years immigration has been the main factor in population growth. The permanent presence of foreign residents is mainly concentrated in north and central Italy. The largest foreign communities are from Romania, Albania, Morocco, China and Ukraine.
|Foreigners, total||5 013 215||units||2020|
|Romanians||1 137 728||units||2020|
|atheist and agnostic||15.3||%||2020|
The Italian economy suffered badly as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, shrinking by 8.9% in 2020: a fall that far exceeded the Eurozone average of -6.6%. GDP was driven downward by the three-pronged collapse in family expenditure, gross fixed capital formation, and the exportation of goods and services. The only positive contribution to GDP was the spending made by public administrations, which grew as a result of the support measures introduced to prop up businesses and private citizens hit by the effects of recession. This unenviable economic picture has also affected the employment market, which has half a million fewer jobs than it did prior to the pandemic. That said, unemployment has decreased slightly, nursed by the inactivity rate.
The increase in national debt and the fall of GDP saw the debt-GDP ratio grow to 155.6%, well beyond the EU average. Economic estimates in 2021 have been influenced by the smooth progress in the vaccination campaign and the relaxation of most restrictive measures at the end of spring, both of which have helped the Italian economy regain lost ground. The European Commission predicts a 5% growth in GDP in 2021 and 4.4% in 2022.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||91.55||index||2016|
|Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)||97.63||index||2019|
|Active population||25 214 224||units||2020|
|Active population, Females||42.5||%||2020|
|Unemployment rate, Females||47.3||%||2020|
|Expenses||619 494||M LCU||2020|
|Revenues||466 041||M LCU||2020|
|Currency in circulation||228.967||BN LCU||2020|
|International reserves||210 687.331||M US$||2020|
Yields from cereal crops are moderate high, with cereals being grown mainly in the south (durum wheat) and in the Po Valley. About 70% of Italian maize is grown in Piedmont, Lombardy and Veneto. Rice is mainly grown in the provinces of Novara, Vercelli and Pavia. The most important industrial crop is sugar beet (Po Valley).
Tomatoes are mostly cultivated in Campania, Sicily, Apulia and Emilia-Romagna. Other main fruit and vegetables include artichokes, melons, watermelons, onions and cauliflowers. Flower growing is extensive, especially in Liguria and Tuscany. Scattered throughout the peninsula, grapevines enjoy prestige in Piedmont, Veneto and Tuscany. Italy alternates with France for first place in terms of global wine-making and vies with Spain for the production of olive oil (Apulia and Calabria excel in terms of quantity, but Tuscany and Liguria offer the finest of oils). Citrus fruits (oranges and lemons) are grown mainly in Sicily, Calabria and Campania. Apples, pears, peaches, almonds, cherries and plums are grown extensively in some regions.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming is practised mainly in the Po Valley, where beef and dairy cattle predominate, along with poultry and pigs. Derivative products, such as cured meats and cheeses are justly famous.
Apart from in the Adriatic Sea and the Sicilian Channel, fishing in the seas off the Italian coast is somewhat limited. The major fishing-ports are Chioggia, Ancona, San Benedetto del Tronto, Manfredonia, Molfetta, Palermo, Trapani and Mazara del Vallo. The total catch isn’t sufficient to meet the demand of the national market, which is forced to import large amounts. Fish farming has developed considerably, both in freshwater (trout and sturgeon) and at sea (bass, grey mullet and gilthead). The Valli di Comacchio are known for their eels.
|barley||1 099.1||1000 t||2020|
|cereals, total||16 869.8||1000 t||2020|
|potatoes||1 463.5||1000 t||2020|
|roots and tubers, total||1 478.3||1000 t||2020|
|beans, dry||13.4||1000 t||2020|
|beans, green||165.2||1000 t||2020|
|grapes||8 295.1||1000 t||2020|
|olives||2 502.8||1000 t||2020|
|sesame seed||0.001||1000 t||2020|
|sugar beet||2 040.8||1000 t||2020|
|hemp tow waste||4.7||1000 t||2020|
|apples||1 481.5||1000 t||2020|
|citrus fruits||2 567.9||1000 t||2020|
|citrus fruits, nes||32.6||1000 t||2020|
|sweet potatoes||0.4||1000 ha||2020|
|beans, dry||5.5||1000 ha||2020|
|beans, green||17.2||1000 ha||2020|
|olive||1 160.2||1000 ha||2020|
|sesame seed||0.002||1000 ha||2020|
|sugar beet||27.3||1000 ha||2020|
|hemp tow waste||0.6||1000 ha||2020|
|citrus fruits||122.3||1000 ha||2020|
|citrus fruits, nes||1.8||1000 ha||2020|
|timber||18 366 764||m³||2019|
|cattle||6 377.23||1000 heads||2019|
|cattle and buffaloes||6 779.52||1000 heads||2019|
|pigs||8 510.27||1000 heads||2019|
|sheep||7 000.88||1000 heads||2019|
|goats||1 058.72||1000 heads||2019|
|asses and mules||27.489||1000 heads||2018|
|birds||175 294||1000 heads||2018|
|silk, raw||0.012||1000 t||2018|
|cheese||1 213.506||1000 t||2018|
|crustaceans and molluscs||154 512.8||t||2019|
|coal, total||17$||1000 t||2019|
|iron ore||3.7||1000 t||2020|
|asphalt, natural||1 531.1||1000 t||2019|
|alabaster||10 722.7||1000 t||2020|
|- thermal||173 890||M kWh||2020|
|- hydro||48 951.8||M kWh||2020|
|- thermal||62 653.9||1000 kW||2020|
|- other renew.||33 374||1000 kW||2020|
|total net generation||271 647.9||M kWh||2020|
|total installed capacity||119 108.8||1000 kW||2020|
|aluminium||1 433.5||1000 t||2020|
|aluminium, secondary||1 000||1000 t||2016|
|bikes||3 045 000||no.||2020|
|air conditioners||1 258 033||no.||2020|
|bitumen||3 062.3||1000 t||2020|
|petrol||18 644.1||1000 t||2020|
|artificial tow||6.8||1000 t||2004|
|carpets||1 442.2||1000 m²||2020|
|cotton fabrics||236.8||M m²||2020|
|footwear||130 700 000||pairs||2020|
|beer of barley||1 570||1000 t||2018|
|coconut oil||0.385||1000 t||2018|
|cigarettes||2 629.7||M units||2016|
|cigars and cigarettes||2 629.7||M units||2016|
|chemical pulp||19.512||1000 t||2019|
|chemi-mechanical pulp||333.776||1000 t||2019|
|cement||19 818.3||1000 t||2020|
|sheet glass||46 817.2||1000 m²||2020|
|chemicals production||28 783.834||M US$||2018|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||34 540.029||M US$||2018|
Italy is one of the leading countries in world trade, with 2.9% of the overall export of goods and 2.4% in imports (2020). The main markets for Italian exports are EU countries (especially Germany and France) and the USA. Oil and natural gas, vehicles, machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, chemical and pharmaceutical products come top on the list of imported goods.
Main exports (M US$ - 2017)
machinery 99 475, iron and steel 30 700, electrical and electronic equipment 30 117, pharmaceuticals 25 687, vehicles and parts thereof 25 680, apparel and accessories 21 331, plastics 20 561, cars 18 021, petroleum products 14 973, chemicals 14 144, furniture and accessories 13 655, footwear 11 315, leather goods 9 177, jewels and precious stones 8 423, technical and electro-medical appliances 8 348, glass and ceramic products 8 025, paper and paperboard 7 080, wine 6 762, aluminium 6 401, fruit and vegetables 5 896, cosmetics and perfumes 5 513, pasta and bakery products 5 218, rubber articles 4 856, ships and boats 4 796, aircraft and parts thereof 4 562, raw hides & skins 4 420, spectacles/goggles and the like 4 090
Finance and banking.
In 2020, the banking sector consisted of 59 banking groups and 90 individual banks, in addition to 81 branches of foreign banks. The process of credit union reform concluded in 2019, which led to a rationalization of banking groups. In April 2021, Euronext completed its acquisition of the Milan Stock Exchange (Borsa Italiana) from the London Stock Exchange Group in a deal worth 4.4 billion euros.
|manufactures||81.703||% of goods exports||2019|
|food products||9.363||% of goods exports||2019|
|Germany||55 685||M euro||2020|
|France||44 660||M euro||2020|
|Germany||60 317||M euro||2020|
|China||32 144||M euro||2020|
|Germany||63 703||M US$||2020|
|France||51 091||M US$||2020|
|Germany||68 913||M US$||2020|
|China||36 726||M US$||2020|
Before the pandemic, Italy was ranked among the most preferred tourist destinations in the world, with almost 65 million of international arrivals in 2019. Its famous cities of art (Rome, Venice, Florence, Naples and many other smaller places) are the most popular destinations. Its many other attractions include: the seaside resorts along the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic coasts, ski resorts and summer Alpine walking resorts, its lakes, spas, archaeological sites and nature reserves and parks. Its visitors come mainly from Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the USA. However, the sector was severely hit by the 2020 health crisis, despite the general summer reopening. Italy confirms its leadership as the nation with the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (58).
|Expenditures||38 024||M US$||2019|
|Number of arrivals||64 513 000||units||2019|
The communications network is highly developed, although this is not true for all parts of the country. The railways network has been upgraded quite significantly, though not without problems. The rolling stock is being modernized and a high-speed, high-capacity train network is in the process of being built. On account of the geography of the country, sea transport plays a key role in trade with countries outside Italy.
Media and telecommunication.
In recent years, the telecommunications sector has undergone constant change as a result of the deregulation of the market and the evolution of TC technology, which has enabled major synergies between the telephone infrastructure and computers, causing mobile phone services to be established once and for all as well as Internet access. With the move to digital terrestrial television, the number of channels has increased, but the market stays divided between three groups: two on the terrestrial network (RAI, which is the Italian state television network, and Mediaset, offering additional digital channels for a fee) and one on the satellite network (Sky, for a fee), with other marginal companies.
|Civil aviation, km flown||406 600 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||27 260.3||1000 units||2019|
|Broadband subscribers||288.53||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|Computers||366.6||per 1000 pop.||2005|
Social and welfare
Education, culture & research.
School is compulsory for ten years in all. Completion is expected by the age of 18 years with upper secondary school qualifications or a vocational qualification that takes at least three years to gain. Pre-school education is not compulsory. Primary education lasts for 5 years and is followed by the first stage of secondary teaching for 3 years. Upper secondary schools are divided as art schools, schools with an emphasis on humanities, those with an emphasis on science, language schools, music and dance conservatories and schools focusing on life science. Vocation and technical training is divided into technical and vocational training schools.
The former is separated into two sectors, economic and technological, whereas the latter into vocational schools for the service sector and vocational schools for the industry and handicraft sectors. University courses are organized around two cycles. The first, which lasts for three years, leads to a first-level (bachelors) degree; the second, which lasts for two years, enables students to gain a specialist degree (masters).
Social security and health.
Welfare, healthcare and assistance are the three main areas around which the publicly-funded Italian social security system is organized, providing financial aid as well as social services. During recent years, expenditure has increasingly been allocated for social welfare schemes to support the disabled, the elderly, war veterans, the unemployed, victims of accidents at work, and people on maternity and sick leave.
There has been a series of various reforms of the pension system to ensure that the figures balance out in the midterm, also taking into account the increased life expectancy of the population, by gradually raising the retirement age and the gradual equalization of men and women.
|Expected years of schooling||16.175||years||2018|
|Students, primary level||2 870 763||units||2018|
|Students, secondary level||4 630 438||units||2018|
|Social protection spending||43.498||% of total expenses||2019|
|Social protection spending||28.195||% of GDP||2019|
|Hospital beds||3.14||per 1000 pop.||2018|
|Physicians||4.02||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|HIV||0.2||% of adults||2019|
|Museums, visitors||129 946 967||units||2019|
|Research and development spending||1.45||% of GDP||2019|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||100||%||2019|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2019|